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The brown. Addiction Essay! bear is one largest bear species, yet considerably smaller than the polar bear. It weighs between 300 and 860 and can be up to how did magic hiv virus, 9.5 feet in total body length. depending on the availability of food. Brown bears can run and climb with. considerable skill, speed and dexterity. They are able to attain speeds of Teenage, 35. mile per hour for a short distance. They are also capable swimmers. The brown. bear distinguishes itself from International and Franchises, other bears by virtue of its shoulder hump, which. is caused by muscles which are used for digging. The front claws are. approximately 1.7 times longer than the rear claws and generally visible even. from distance. The color of the animal varies from a light creamy color to. almost black.
Brown bears are omnivorous, eating a mixed diet of grasses, fruits, bulbs and roots, insects, fish and small animals. In few areas there are. known to be predators of larger animals such as caribou and moose. Each of the. Teenage Essay! brown bears has a different temperament rather like humans. Some will attack, others will not. Some bears are scared of humans, others will have a have. natural curiosity. Brown bears may be very dangerous. However, most of the time. a they more likely to attack when defending cubs or territory. A stalking brown. bear is International even a more rare occasion. Even though polar and brown bears have a lot. in Essay common they differ in many ways such as amount of population, size, areas of. living, physical characteristics and attitudes towards people.
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This essay will look at Addiction Essay motivation to International Essay, discuss the content theorist Abraham . Maslow ‘Hierarchy of Addiction Essay Needs’ relevance and Between and Homophobia, his critics. The research of motivation is interested basically with why people act in certain ways. ’Why do people do what they do?’ In typical terms, motivation can be defined as the direction and perseverance of action. It is interested with why humans take a specific course of action in to others, and why they continue with a chosen endeavour. Abraham Maslow , Fundamental human needs , Human behavior 1245 Words | 4 Pages. What is motivation ? Motivation is generally defined as the force that compels us to action. It drives us to work hard and pushes . us to Teenage Addiction to Smoking, succeed. Motivation influences our behavior and our ability to accomplish goals.
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Table of Addiction Contents Introduction 3 Types of Motivation in the Workplace 3 Theories on . Motivation 4-7 Factors Affecting Employee Motivation 7-8 Conclusion 8 References 9-11 Motivation in the Workplace Introduction Motivation within the workforce has always been a central problem for is androstenedione, leaders and managers. Employees who feel motivated in the workplace are more likely to be persistent. Employment , Human behavior , Job satisfaction 1829 Words | 5 Pages. the concepts of Motivation . Addiction To Smoking. Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and . elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological drive that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal.
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Articles on Motivation Motivation and How to Get Motivated How many times have you started enthusiastically a weight loss program, began a bodybuilding or aerobics training program, or started learning a foreign language, only to stop after a short while. Spurts of Enthusiasm and Lack of Interest Do you sometimes. Energy , Enthusiasm , Fan 1332 Words | 6 Pages. question we decided that our subject area would be on legal, the topic of motivation as this was the most popular choice from the members of our . Teenage To Smoking. group. We also wanted to make sure that we could easily gather the data for our research question so it was decided that we would focus on International Essay, the motivation and goals of university students at London Metropolitan University. Our Research question is therefore – “Does gender affect the motivation and achievement goals of 1st year university students?” Once we had. Douglas McGregor , Human behavior , I-Change Model 895 Words | 3 Pages. Motivation : General definition A question anyone can ask themselves is: what keeps us going?
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? Assignment 6 Motivation is known as the andrew primary powerful force that causes the Addiction Essay change from is androstenedione, desire to willpower in life. Hunger is one example . of Addiction motivation which creates the desire to eat. Andrew Carnegie Primary Source. Motivation can also be defined as the procedure that starts guides and continues goal oriented actions. Motivation is Teenage to Smoking generally used to explain the reason for a person’s actions. The Connection Christianity And Homophobia Essay. Another example of motivation is when a student is really motivated to get into medical school, so he/she studies every night for Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay, it. Abraham Maslow , Colombo , Construction 1311 Words | 7 Pages.
the text book, motivation refers to a psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction. Managers attempt to motivate individuals . to pursue organizational objectives willingly and carnegie, persistently and be loyal to the organization. Addiction. According BusinessDictionary.com motivation is Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in legal people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation results from the. Abraham Maslow , Douglas McGregor , Employment 1935 Words | 6 Pages. retention and motivation go hand in hand for Teenage Addiction Essay, any organization.
Among global industries where even after high rate of primary source unemployment; . organizations are struggling to retain their employees. Question is whether employee motivation theories provide a feasible solution for employee retention and better strategies for performance improvement? Different articles have provided better understanding of how motivation theories may help employers identify, analyze relation between employee motivation and employee. Airline , I-Change Model , Management 1784 Words | 6 Pages. ? MBA handbook an MBA would constitute a good investment of Teenage Addiction your time and your(or your employer’s) money, to the point at which . you have your qualification and are wondering how to build on it. Is Androstenedione Legal. among those who know that the letters stand for a prestigious, internationally recognized postgraduate management qualification, aimed at to Smoking preparing managers for senior positions, there is still often uncertainty as to what MBA actually covers. The American model: the how did magic hiv virus first year of the programme concentrates. Case study , Education , Leadership 486 Words | 2 Pages. responses”. Teenage Addiction To Smoking. (McShane et.al, 2013, pg. And Franchises. 4). Motivation is what drives people to succeed and reach their goals and plays an important role in . enhancing an organisation’s development. An employee’s motivation can play a big part in organisational behaviour, as it is a fundamental part of how the employee performs in their role and how they assist the organisation in Teenage to Smoking attaining their goals.
This essay will look at what motivation is, some of the Essay on Enron: theories regarding motivation , the Teenage to Smoking Essay factors that play a role in motivating. Employment , Expectancy theory , Human behavior 1628 Words | 5 Pages. 1. Motivation – provide 3 perspectives Motivation is Markets and Franchises a force within us that arouses, directs and Teenage, sustains our behaviour. . According to Rabideau (2005) motivation can be defined as the driving force behind all the actions of an individual. The influence of an hiv virus individual's needs and desires both have a strong impact on the direction of their behaviour. Arousal is about the energy that drives your behaviour, the arousal theory of motivation suggests that people are motivated to engage in behaviours. Abraham Maslow , Fundamental human needs , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 1535 Words | 5 Pages. Buchanan defines motivation . ‘ Motivation is a decision-making process, through which the Teenage individual chooses the desired . outcomes and sets in what polo motion the Teenage Essay behaviour appropriate to them’ Buchanan, D. Huczynski, A. (2004) Organizational Behaviour An Introductory Text, 5th Ed Motivation is a desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy to work towards that goal. Essay On Enron:. Employees who are motivated have a desire to complete the requirements of the task at hand. Motivation is a key element.
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Writing About My Trip To Finland Is Impossible. Without a doubt, I thoroughly enjoyed my recent trip to Finland. However, I’ve been sitting here in front of my computer for Teenage Addiction Essay a total of eight hours over the past two days trying to write more about that trip and the only thing I have is two pages of the most absurd gibberish and The Connection Between Christianity, dribble I’ve ever put together. Here’s an actual sample… “ And so, after a good lunch in Turku, I sat on a bench near a nice river and sat there wondering how to find the Addiction Essay, other hidden things to make my stay even better. ” What horrendous garbage! While I have plenty to is androstenedione say about the time I spent in the small coastal town of Teenage Essay, Hanko, on the island of Kimito, in the old Finnish capital of Turku and in the inland city of Tampere, I am having great difficulty putting these experiences into coherent sentences and paragraphs.
Heck, at magic get the hiv virus this point, I don’t even know if I could put together a coherent two-word phrase. Why am I finding it so challenging to write about Finland? After exactly forty-two seconds of to Smoking, deep thought on the matter, I reached the conclusion that it all has to do with the fact that Finland lacks the must-see attractions, the ‘wow’ activities and Guys, the life-changing highlights that we often seek out when we choose a destination to visit. It is infinitely harder to describe to you why I enjoyed my time in Finland so much when the Addiction, list of experiences I had in that country looks so simple when written down. And hence the gibberish. But just because these activities look so simple, and magic get the hiv virus, possibly unexciting at first glance, doesn’t mean that they too cannot change ones life or at least help create a travel experience that stands out as something quite special. Do you think that, as travelers, we believe that a destination must have ‘something’ in order to Teenage to Smoking Essay make it a destination worth visiting? And by ‘something’ I mean a major sight or event or even just a short paragraph in your guidebook that tells you that such-and-such a destination is ‘definitely worth a 2-3 day visit’. How else do we decide where to spend our time while traveling?
We certainly don’t stop too often in the towns, cities and villages that don’t appear to and Homophobia offer much after we do some online research. But we must be careful if we do this, because there are destinations out Teenage, there that will indeed change your life, or at least have a significant impact, even if they are rarely classified as ‘must-see’ by anyone else. Such places include, among millions of carnegie primary source, others, Hanko and to Smoking, Turku and Essay The Smartest, Tampere and Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay, Kimito Island. While you won’t find a two-page list of seemingly amazing highlights when reading about these destinations, if you dare to visit anyway, what you will be able to do is… witness pristine nature, to carnegie primary source spend an afternoon rowing a canoe around a stunning lake while surrounded by scenery that makes you realize just how beautiful this planet truly is ride a bicycle everywhere you go, along forest paths and along quiet lakeside roads, all while exploring friendly, cozy communities that welcome you to their tiny weekend festival as if you had lived there all your life stand on Teenage Addiction to Smoking, empty beaches as you inhale the therapeutic sea breeze and feel your head become infinitely clearer than it has been for a very long time dine on such delicious local dishes, all prepared with the freshest of The Connection, ingredients and Teenage to Smoking Essay, served with the widest of smiles. finish the day with a trip to a smoke sauna in the woods where you chat with the locals in the 81.5 C heat and then join them outside for a quick swim in the 15 C water of the nearby lake interact with some amazing people who live in a small island community that is so impressively dedicated to International Markets and Franchises improving the lives of it’s residents as well as to offering such unique and memorable experiences to all visitors purchase fresh fruit from a roadside stall right in front of the farm, where you simply take what you want and leave the money in a jar (not many places left in the world that work on the honor system!) travel around an archipelago by ferry, talking with the Addiction Essay, captain throughout the journey as he gives you a first-hand account of life in source, this remote island region stroll along beautiful rivers, wander through local markets and visit interesting museums that you wouldn’t ordinarily visit find yourself invited to and genuinely welcomed at the opening of a new art exhibit even though you’re in Addiction Essay, jeans and a t-shirt and everyone else is in Christianity Essay, suits or evening gowns meet an endless stream of locals who will go out of their way to Teenage to Smoking Essay ensure your visit to their hometown is as perfect as possible. I’m not sure what you think of the above activities. Maybe you find them to is androstenedione legal be interesting, maybe not. For me, these are the activities that contributed to the success of my trip to Finland, and even thinking about them right now makes me quite nostalgic (and the trip only finished two weeks ago!). So, now that you see how I spent my time during that trip, I say, look beyond the ‘must-see highlights’ that we so often seek out.
Go out into the world and visit countries, cities, towns, islands and villages that don’t get as much attention, that don’t have the huge write-ups telling you that you must see this destination before you die. That’s how I ended up in Finland and that’s how I plan to organize many of my future trips as well. *Before I go, I’d like to thank the following for making my time in Finland so memorable: Pekka and Liisa from Hiking Travel (great people, great kayak tour in Tampere) Michel from E.A.T. Tampere Tours (excellent biking/sauna excursion around Tampere)
Ville and his team at the incredible Dream Hostel in Teenage to Smoking Essay, Tampere. The staff of Laivahostel Borea in Turku (located on an old cruise ship) Hotel B8 in Hanko (an old police station turned into a hotel) Alan’s Cafe (as good as it gets – food, atmosphere, hospitality!) Saija Huhtiniemi for showing me around Turku. Leena Immonen for the bicycle tour of what did marco do, Hanko. Joakim from Sun Fun Ferry (based out of Addiction, Hanko) Daniel from Wilson Charter (ferry company based out of Rosala) Every single person I met on International and Franchises Essay, beautiful Kimito Island! Do you only seek out destinations that offer must-see sights or attractions?
Or do you look for places that are not necessarily ‘must-see’? Success! Now check your email to Addiction to Smoking Essay confirm your subscription. Since 1999 I've been traveling and living around the world nonstop. Sign up below for personal stories, real advice and useful updates from my adventures. Only good stuff, no nonsense. Success! Now check your email to confirm your subscription.
Are you ready to earn money and Markets and Franchises Essay, travel? I love what you’ve brought up here. I write a small blog and Teenage to Smoking Essay, there’s many destinations I just never bothered writing about. Between Essay! The funny thing is that some of those I didn’t write about happen to Teenage Addiction be my favourite. There might have been a lack of exciting adventures to write about, but that doesn’t mean they weren’t amazing. Can’t wait to visit my girlfriend’s hometown of Tampere this year for the first time! Destinations on my vacation list are:
1) cold (I’m from Texas. I’m sick of heat and humidity.) 2) beautiful (architecture and/or nature) I am perfectly content to sit by a river bank for half the day just soaking up the beauty of did marco polo do, it all. I am perfectly content to stroll by elaborately built historical buildings, amazed at what a good craftsman can do. I’ve found I particularly enjoy those “in-between” cities and towns – the ones in between popular destinations, the ones that only get a black dot on the map but are full of friendly locals and Teenage to Smoking Essay, small town charm. Until now I managed to read this entire post Earl. In my case, I travelled to Belize and, despite being a country with no “must see” places, I enjoyed the simplicity of every city and town I visited there.
As for is androstenedione legal the companies you mentioned at the end of your post, did they help you by giving their services for free? Just curious #128578; Hey Osvaldo – The Finland Tourism Board offered a couple of free accommodations but not everything was free. what a wonderful experiences…simple things do make a great experiences..love it. I visited Finland, loved it, and Essay, said the same exact thing. How Did Get The! It lacks the must-see sights. But the standard of living is just so high that it is Teenage to Smoking Essay a great place to what be–although expensive! Hey Stephen – It is an expensive country overall…and while it is possible to keep costs down for certain aspects, it’s probably not a country one would want to stay for very long as a result of Teenage to Smoking Essay, those prices. Hey Earl! I’m form Finland and I was truly so interested while reading this post. Cause as a Finn, it’s sometimes difficult to imagine what’s the “thing” why people from other countries would like to come to Essay The Smartest in the our small little country.
But you were so right first of all by saying it’s sometimes better to look for the not “must see” things. I’ve realized it as well during my trips. Teenage Essay! The most spectacular one’s were as I was invited to source local people’s houses. There’s something special in Addiction to Smoking Essay, that, must say. I’m sorry about my bad english but anyways just wanted to tell you that it’s amazing to see you’ve enjoyed our country and you definitely described it with right words.
And you’ve been to legal smoke sauna? Nice #128578; That must have been one hell of an experience! But you know what, during my own trips around the Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay, world I’ve realized one thing. Finnish lake view is something you can’t find anywhere else. Brings peace in legal, ur mind. Teenage Addiction! Hopefully you’ll find yourself back to source Finland one day again! I like ur blog and the way you write and I admire how damn brave u are by travelling all around! Ps. I’m from Tampere, hopefully you liked my city #128578; Hey Laura – Thank you for Teenage Addiction to Smoking your comment and first, I most certainly did enjoy Tampere #128578; I wish I could have stayed longer but unfortunately didn’t have enough time. Markets And Franchises Essay! Hopefully when I do make it back to Finland, we’ll be able to meet up in to Smoking Essay, person.
I would love to meet more Finns next time around! We once took a winter weekend trip to Nanaimo, BC. When crossing the boarder into Canada, the always stoic border guard laughed when we told him we were headed to Nanaimo. We had some of the best food and people experiences that weekend. I have never been to Finland, although I have always been curious about it. That being said, I am from Canada, which I’m told shares a lot in is androstenedione, common with the Scandinavian countries. Teenage To Smoking! I feel the same way about Canada: we don’t have really anything (Niagara Falls perhaps) in the way of tourist sites, and the cities aren’t anything special, but there is something about the country that seems to how did hiv virus draw travelers anyways.
I think what you said about just taking the time to appreciate how beautiful our planet really is Teenage to Smoking hits the spot. We don’t always need to be “doing” — sometimes we just need to “exist” in a place, and Essay Guys Room, that is enough to make it a wonderful destination. Nice to hear that you enjoyed your stay in Addiction to Smoking, Finland! Here are some footage from International, Kimito Island for those of you that may wanna watch: http://www.youtube.com/user/Kemiokuvina/videos?view=0. 178 degrees is VERY hot outside!
D: ! haha. Hey Dylan – It was 178 degrees inside the Essay, sauna, not outside #128578; Sounds like my kind of place. Magic Get The Hiv Virus! The longer my travel sabbatical lasted, the more I wanted to visit places where I did not feel like I had to run around and Teenage Addiction Essay, see the on Enron: The Smartest Guys, main sights. I wanted a place with a unique vibe, good people, and to Smoking Essay, beauty. @The Travel Chica – That seems to happen after a long period of travel. International Markets! All of a sudden those main sights aren’t as interesting as they once were and all we want to do is enjoy a comfortable, unique destination to Teenage Essay just stay for Essay on Enron: The Smartest Guys Room a while.
Sometimes it is about the Teenage Addiction, little nuances in a locale. Simple things/activities in a location can make it very personal. Seems like you identified your block and turned into a great post. Hey Kurt – And I think that I’m more and more attracted to those destinations that allow travelers to really have a unique, personal experience. Maybe that happens after a while on did marco do, the road. To Smoking Essay! Where are you these days by how did get the hiv virus, the way? What a lovely post to read about Teenage to Smoking Essay your own home country. I traveled for 10 months in Asia last year, and when people asked me about Finland I told them about nature, quiet, clean air and lakes and the archipelago. Those are the things we Finns appreciate and what do, love. And that is why we so thoroughly enjoy to show them to foreigners.
Thank you for your inspiring post of Finland! Thank you for the comment Sonja and any place that offers such nature and Teenage, clean air is a place that I could visit over and over is androstenedione, again! thank you for the posting. Teenage Essay! I live in a small village near Turku and for two years I’ve travelled exchanging homes with people from source, different countries. When we first started my husband wouldn’t believe anyone would want to exchange with us. Teenage! Still when I tell people about our exchanges they wonder what there is to is androstenedione see in Finland and Teenage to Smoking Essay, how we manage to what did marco do find exchange partners. And it is partly true, I do get a lot of answers like “Thank you, but we are not planning to travel to Finland”.
But, on Teenage Essay, the other hand, I also get several inquiries a month from families all over the world. Our exchanges have also taught me to appreciate my own area. This summer we had two Californian exchanges, and International Markets and Franchises Essay, believe it or not, there was a lot in my home and my village they wanted to take with them. Our sauna, of course, but also the local bakery and forest walking paths. I didn’t know I have a dinner table with a beautiful view before they told me so! I think now that people travel more, they also seek for new kinds of experiences. And yes, Golden Gate Bridge is amazing, but most of Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay, all we loved the little Sacramento suburb we stayed in with its cafes and parks. Hey Nina – That sounds wonderful that you’ve been exchanging homes…that must give you such unique experiences, especially when you end up in random places that you might not visit as a traveler. Did Marco Do! And if I ever have a home of Teenage Addiction, my own, I’d certainly be interested in exchanging with you so that I could get a better taste of Finland!
I don’t know about and Homophobia Essay “impossible”, you’ve done a pretty damn good job right here! #128512; Hey Matthew – Much appreciated sir! Thanks, that was nice to read! I love to travel the world but I love my hometown Hanko even more : ) I am sold on Teenage to Smoking Essay, Finland thanks to this write up. I enjoy life changing places like Angkor Wat, Eiffel Tower, and Victoria Falls, but the list of things you did in Finland sound just as appealing as any of those places that one might find on a wonders of the on Enron: in the Room, world list. @Traveling Ted – And I only had a small taste of Finland in the end. Just the fact that there is so much nature, everywhere, makes it a country that offers endless rewards to those who visit (assuming one likes being in untouched nature, which I believe you do!).
What an excellent trip, Earl. Just reading through your sentences transported my mind into a relaxing state. I really needed that today, I’m getting a little cabin fever and going crazy inside this warehouse I work at. Wish I could be in Finland relaxing. Anyway, I completely get what you mean. Sometimes the vibe of a place just makes you feel amazing, makes you reflect, makes you think… makes you dig deeply within you and, in Addiction, the process, you are transformed. I think that happens in The Connection Between Essay, any place where you can be close to nature. Seems like Finland is one of those wonderful places. About boring though? I don’t know, after reading things like: “The staff of Teenage, Laivahostel Borea in International Markets, Turku (located on an old cruise ship)
Hotel B8 in Hanko (an old police station turned into a hotel)” That sounds AWESOME! what an Teenage to Smoking Essay excellent trip, Earl. Just reading through your sentences transported my mind into a relaxing state. Carnegie Source! I really needed that today, I’m getting a little cabin fever and going crazy inside this warehouse I work at. Wish I could be in Teenage to Smoking, Finland relaxing #128577; Anyway, I completely get what you mean. Sometimes the vibe of a place just makes you feel amazing, makes you reflect, makes you think… makes you dig deeply within you and, in the process, you are transformed. Is Androstenedione Legal! I think that happens in Teenage Addiction Essay, any place where you can be close to how did hiv virus nature, in my opinion. since like Finland is one of Teenage Addiction, those wonderful places.
About boring though? I don’t know, after reading things like: “The staff of Laivahostel Borea in Turku (located on an old cruise ship) Hotel B8 in Markets, Hanko (an old police station turned into to Smoking a hotel)” That sounds AWESOME! @latinAbroad – The nature certainly does help as Finland was probably one of the quietest countries I’ve ever visited. This certainly puts the andrew, mind in a great state of Teenage Addiction to Smoking, relaxation every day and that leads to plenty of how did magic get the, benefits of Teenage to Smoking Essay, course. And yes, Finland does have quite a collection of interesting accommodation options #128578; To me, every place in this world has it’s unique charm and can be worth a visit. It’s all about what you make of the experience. Finland may not have huge temples and pyramids and the local people and culture may not be exotic at Markets and Franchises all to Addiction to Smoking Essay a westerner.
But it seems to offer beautiful nature, perfect infrastructure, safety tranquility and friendly people who speak your language. This summer, I visited a small beach resort on the German coast of the Baltic sea. Technically, this would have had to primary source be a “boring” experience since there are no jaw-dropping sights and there really isn’t too much to do either. Similar to Finland, prices are rather high and the infrastructure is over-developed, taking any adventurous edge out of the place. Or so I thought. Yet I had a great time staying at a friend’s apartment for free and Addiction, riding his bike along the beautiful beach which had cristal clear water and nice dunes. Between Christianity And Homophobia Essay! I exercised on the shores and Addiction, had a beer watching the sunset, thinking about future plans. Riding the bike, I came along a sailing school that offered free classes. Needless to say, I took one the legal, next morning and spend my first official 30 minutes on a catamaran, learning a few basics. All in all, a very pleasent and relaxing experience that cost me next to nothing and to Smoking, I didn’t have to travel halfway around the Christianity and Homophobia Essay, globe to Teenage Addiction to Smoking get it either. #128578;
Hey Andy – That’s a perfect example of how a seemingly random and unexciting destination can prove to be quite memorable! Thanks for sharing #128578; My girlfriend and carnegie source, I are Finns. We’ve been traveling for 8 months now. Many times on this trip we have had the Teenage to Smoking Essay, same conversation: people ask what Finland is like and we say “Finland has nothing to see”.
This is of course a lie. The Connection Between Christianity Essay! Finland has plenty of Teenage, things going for it. We do NOT have mountains, canyons or ravines, ancient architecture, a long national history, or a myriad of primary, other things that you usually visit a country for. What we do have is Essay difficult to explain, and so perhaps “Finland has nothing to what see” is the easy way out. Thank you, Earl, for taking the time to Teenage Addiction Essay explain this in detail.
I can now put “the Finland experience” into words better. #128578; Hey Jonas – Yes, that is definitely a lie but I know exactly what you mean #128578; It’s one of those countries where travelers just need to go there, carve out is androstenedione, their own unique experience and Teenage Addiction Essay, enjoy whatever comes their way. Primary! And I’m confident that the majority of those who do visit have overwhelmingly positive experiences wherever they do end up, but perhaps like me, they will find it hard to explain to others who have yet to experience Finland for themselves. Thanks for commenting Jonas! I get a little nervous when my food is served with too wide a smile. I was born and Addiction to Smoking Essay, raised in International and Franchises Essay, Hanko and have a very deep love for those beaches. When you stand on one of those beaches or on a rock at the edge of to Smoking Essay, a beach and look out at andrew carnegie primary source the vast sea in front of Addiction to Smoking, you you somehow feel both solitary and like a part of the world at the same time. Because really, you could sit yourself down on a boat and eventually you’d get to the other side of the world.
This is did marco polo what comforted me when I was younger and longed for the world outside of Hanko. Teenage Addiction! Now having left Hanko a while ago going back home makes me feel even more like a part of the world. Now I live in Between Christianity Essay, Turku and I love it here too but I miss the seabreeze. I think one must surround oneself with the Essay, sea. P.S the lady who gave you your biketour happens to be my mother and her name is Leena Immonen (not Leena Immocu like you’ve accidentally typed)
Our little seaside of Hanko bid you welcome back anytime! Hey Julia – I remember when your mother took me up to some rocks next to International Markets the beach where people often go for storm-watching. And as I stood there I wished that I could stay in Hanko for a week and Teenage, just enjoy it all some more! One of my favorite places in the world is Kyrgyzstan, especially the International and Franchises Essay, city of Bishkek, and Teenage Addiction, there is nothing there. Not a thing in terms of big attractions… not much in general. Magic Get The! But I love it. I love how comfortable I feel there , the unique culture, the daily adventures, the people — and Teenage Addiction Essay, that’s all I need. In fact “attractions” are often a let-down for me, so I don’t really travel for how did hiv virus them as much as I do for the feeling of a place. If you want to write about Finland, I suggest writing about how it makes you feel. An experience that set the tone. I think you’ve already done that a bit in this post anyway #128521;
Hey Brooke – That’s a good point about attractions…they can let us down, especially when we go in with such huge expectations. To Smoking! And that’s why places that don’t have such attractions can be so rewarding…if we don’t have any expectations, we can accept every experience as rewarding and positive! I certainly think that a city not having any “must see/do” attractions is not at on Enron: The Smartest Room all a negative. In fact, many of the cities that I’ve traveled to Addiction literally because I picked the name randomly from a list have been some of the is androstenedione, best ones I’ve ever been to. For me the best experiences can be gained just by wandering around a city, walking, looking up, down and around, observing people, talking to locals, sitting down to Teenage Essay have a drink and andrew primary, watch the world go by. Having said that, don’t get me wrong – as other posters have said, tourist attractions are often amazing too. Not fabricated attractions, but attractions that became attractions because they had “something” worthwhile about them.
What I felt when I first saw the Eiffel Tower and Colosseum for example, far exceeded what I could have imagined. Hey Paul – Picking them randomly is an Teenage excellent idea! And I’m similar to andrew carnegie primary source you as I often find a simple wander or a simple moment in a random place to be some of Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay, my favorite highlights. First of all… “And so, after a good lunch in Turku, I sat on a bench…” LOL, you’re absolutely right – that IS pretty pathetic garbage prose! #128521; But seriously, while I normally eschew the “beaten [backpacker] path” of sights like the Taj, Ankor, Giza, etc. I’ve learned that many of Essay, these “can’t miss” sights are legendary for good reason: They truly ARE spectacular. I mean, yes the hawkers at Giza are in a class of “Annoy” by themselves, but those pyramids?
Gazing at them with my own two baby-blues was utterly awesome. BUT… that said, I hear you loud ‘n clear about not settling for Addiction to Smoking Essay merely the “gotta dos” of the world. Yep, the Gobi was great but… my fondest memories of Mongolia shall always be the small interactions – churning yak milk into butter with a Khasak housewife; of Cambodia – sitting on a park bench chatting (mostly in mime) with an aged local; in Egypt – hopping on a falucca with a Nubian lad and andrew carnegie source, seeing the grin on his face when we found the Teenage Addiction to Smoking, geocache on Elephant Island; and here in Vietnam? Yes, yes, Ha Long Bay surely didn’t disappoint and andrew carnegie source, is not to be missed, but again, my fondest memories here are of ho-hum little every day bits that are impossible to wax glowing about in a blog post. Hey Dyanne – Definitely.
There is a reason why popular destinations are popular and I like to visit such locations as well. But I think it’s important to realize that there is more out Teenage to Smoking, there as well and hiv virus, that often times, just like you said, what we remember from Addiction, our travels, what changes us the most, are those moments that no guidebook could prepare you for. Hey Earl, I really enjoyed reading this post! I find that people overlook places that arent in the ‘top ten places to see’ books. Some of my friends who want to International maybe go traveling with me only mention big cities that have huge monuments that they want to go to. and while these cities or towns at Teenage Addiction probably very nice, I also want to see random towns that don’t seem to offer much. And Franchises Essay! These are the places where you can skip all the tourists and see the Teenage, culture of the people who live there! I totally agree with you on this point! Great post Earl! @RunAwayHippie – Random towns are the what did marco, way to go and while it might be difficult for some to believe that at first, usually, after visiting a couple of non-guidebook destinations, most travelers discover the appeal! Earl – after living in Thailand for Teenage 16+ years, I sometimes feel I don’t know what exactly it is about the country that makes people so excited.
I know there is alot to do, beautiful places, great people, interesting sites, but is carnegie primary that what keeps me here? I think not. More than likely, what gets people to come to a place or keeps people staying anywhere is to Smoking a feel that something is right. I’ve been to andrew carnegie primary source Cambodia many times, maybe 40. I like the place but after so many times going there for to Smoking visa runs, work, and fun, I no longer find the how did, place appealing. Interesting for Teenage to Smoking a day or two, but after that, I can’t wait to leave. The place doesn’t have it. Did Marco Polo! Neither does Singapore or Laos, IMO. It’s the little things that matter: the food, the people, the experience AND THE FEEL of the place.
Hey Scott – Those little things certainly do play a major role and the interesting part is that every single person is attracted by a different set. So what is appealing to one might not be appealing to another, but in the end, that doesn’t matter at all. If we find the Addiction to Smoking Essay, places that feel right to is androstenedione legal us, then that’s all that matters! This reminds me of the upper peninsula of Michigan. To Smoking! I couldn’t understand why more people don’t choose to go there, but then I took my husband he called it an The Connection Between Christianity and Homophobia Essay “old people place” and Teenage to Smoking, said we should go to like New York City or some other crowded touristy place next time.
Oh, well, some people just don’t get it #128578; The U.P. has beautiful untouched forests like the Porcupine Mountains, tons of waterfalls, and clear water beaches on Lake Superior and culture in the few small towns that survive through the harsh winters (like Copper Harbor or Marquette). What’s not to like about andrew carnegie primary getting a sandy Great Lakes beach to yourself for swimming or finding the most interesting rocks with just the right weather in Teenage Addiction, the summer? Also, like you mentioned in the post that sometimes little activities like biking along the lakeside road, purchase fresh fruit from a roadside stall … could me wonderful highlights … i remember passing by the sleepy town of Room, Leikanger in Norway and the hotel was next to a lake. Spending time at the charming lake shore, listening to the sound of little waves hitting the sandy beach was some of the my favorite time. of the whole trip. Thanks for sharing #128578; Hi Earl, I think you summed up Finland perfectly.
I spent five months out Teenage to Smoking, there in 2007 and how did magic get the hiv virus, your post made me feel really nostalgic (in a good way). One of the reasons why I wanted to go to Finland was because of the mystery – no ‘must see’ tourist attractions sprung to mind and I think that’s exciting. Travel is surely about Teenage to Smoking Essay exploring the places that don’t have much written about them. Between And Homophobia! Obviously it’s nice to visit ‘must see’ sights, but it’s the little things and the people that really make travelling magical. Anyway, enjoy the Addiction to Smoking, rest of International Essay, you time in Finland and if you haven’t got any other plans, I’d recommend driving through Finland to northern Norway.
Tromso and the surrounding fishing villages are really incredible. Hey Clare – I’ve actually visited northern Norway before, all the way up to Teenage Addiction Essay Honningsvag and the Nordkapp (such a beautiful part of the world!) and this Finland trip was a relatively quick one. Magic Hiv Virus! Glad you agreed with the post! Hey Earl, I enjoyed this post! Mainly, because it?s something I?m trying to do on to Smoking Essay, my travels too – I do research places to andrew primary source go, but generally ignore major recommended places and just land in a place, city or town, then talk to locals about what is there to do. To Smoking! Even if it?s nothing, it?s the talking to locals that sometimes is the highlight. The best way to travel is to travel slowly. Then you notice all the legal, things that you would miss if you just do tourist attraction hopping and go by official, published guides.
Out of interest, how do you decide where to go next and how do you research the destination? Or do you just “land” in a place and then look around? Hey Lukas – Yes, that is definitely a great way to travel and I also feel that such a conversation with a local often ends up being more memorable than any sights I could have visited. As for deciding where to go next, it’s usually quite random. Teenage Addiction! I’ll just wake up one day and start thinking about how did magic get the hiv virus a particular country and Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay, that’s it. And I don’t do much research, very little in fact. I much prefer to just show up and International and Franchises Essay, let the trip unfold on its own! Thanks Earl for sharing your wonderful time in Finland. The fish dish reminded me of the one i had down the steps from the Helsinkin Cathedral, in Teenage Addiction to Smoking, a local festival . Did you go to Eliel Saarinen’s house? When i travel scenery, history, art/culture, food place high in did marco polo, my priority list so i picked the location based on these criteria. However, i always leave room for surprise, meaning time that allows me to discover something that i had no idea about, suggested by Addiction to Smoking, the local people or media.
This is the part that makes traveling exciting, imho :-). I remember discovering this place while wandering the is androstenedione legal, neighborhood of Chartres cathedral in France http://www.discover-chartres.com/maison-picassiette.html. Hey Lien – Leaving room for surprise is always a wise idea, no matter what the Teenage Addiction to Smoking, focus of our travels. And I didn’t get to The Connection Between and Homophobia Essay Eliel Saarinen’s house, just too much to see and do during my stay. The past few times I’ve had the opportunity to travel, it has been to major locations like London, Paris, and Rome with a few side trips to sights like Stonehenge and Teenage Essay, Pompeii. After a few trips like that though, I’ve been contemplating something more toned-down for The Connection my next trip. I have a week off of school near Christmas, and I’ve been trying to convince some friends of mine to join me in Essay, renting a cabin in The Connection Between and Homophobia, Switzerland near some random town I’ve never heard of before.
Nowhere spectacular… I’m less concerned with seeing the sights and more interested in just being there. I enjoy being the tourist from time to time, and Addiction, I love encountering all of the carnegie source, history and culture associated with the major sights of the world, but I’m also looking for a more “local” experience. Sometimes it’s nice to not lug around a guidebook/map and to Smoking, develop blisters from running around a destination at breakneck speed to try and see as much as possible in whatever time I have #128578; Hey Lindsay – It is nice to just be somewhere every now and Essay on Enron: Guys in the Room, then and your Switzerland idea sounds more than ideal. If I wasn’t heading to Addiction Essay India I would join you myself #128578; Earl, a question. What do you do about did marco polo do stuff like books, or momentos or gifts that people give you. Hard to travel with these no?
Do you have some kind of permanent storage somewhere or just don’t hang on to anything more than what fits into your bag? @I’m Also Earl: I don’t really hang on Essay, to much but I do have a couple of Between Essay, boxes stored at my mom’s place back in the US where I do keep things that I’ve picked up along the way. Addiction! It certainly would be difficult to travel with these items! I just spent 2 days in Helsinki and andrew primary, can’t wait to see more of Finland. Surprisingly, many things there remind me of Japan (maybe that’s why all the Japanese tourists go?). I don’t mind skipping ‘must see’ sights at all if I’m not personally interested, and some of the countries I loved best aren’t really popular with tourists or lack the large feature article sights – Taiwan and South Korea for example. Teenage Addiction To Smoking! It’s all about the International, general feeling, friendly people, good food and Teenage Addiction Essay, vibes. @The Queer Nomad: Indeed it is and and Homophobia Essay, I hope you enjoyed the rest of your travels around the country! Oh man, I’ve always wanted to Teenage to Smoking take a nice relaxing trip to Finland.
It sounds like just the place to go after a few hectic months stuck at work or fighting the chaos of big cities. Also, “forty-two seconds of deep thought…” Do I spy a Hitchhiker’s Guide reference? Hey Derek – Ha, I actually didn’t make any reference of purpose #128578; Whenever anyone asks what my favourite city is, in a heart beat I say Helsinki. There is “something” about Finland that I loved that I just can’t put my finger on but I just loved every minute of my stay. Was it my amazing host, the great food, the wonderful people, the sitsit. Andrew Carnegie Source! I don’t know but I know that I will be back. Hey George – Well, what made your stay so perfect is Addiction Essay definitely less important…sometimes we just love a destination for no specific reason at Markets and Franchises Essay all!
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age of reason essays The Age of Reason and Revival (1648 A.D. – 1789 A.D.) • Evaluate Rationalism as a threat to Orthodox Christianity and how Christians dealt with the threat in terms of Addiction Essay, Pascal and the Pietists, Wesley and Methodism, and the Great Awakening. Markets! • Discuss how and why Noll (2000) views the conversion of the Wesleys as a turning point in church history. Module 6: Assignments. Great Awakening Essay. 1) Write a 1,000-word essay in which you examine the importance of the Great Awakening and its impact on the church. 2) Prepare this assignment according to Addiction to Smoking the APA guidelines. • Evaluate Rationalism as a threat to legal Orthodox Christianity and how Christians dealt with the threat in terms of Pascal and the Pietists, Wesley and Addiction to Smoking Essay, Methodism, and the Great Awakening. • Discuss how and on Enron: Guys in the, why Noll (2000) views the conversion of the Wesleys as a turning point in church history. The Age of Reason and Revival (1648 A.D. Teenage To Smoking Essay! aˆ“ 1789 A.D.) • Read chapters 10 and 11 in The Smartest in the Room, Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. • Read chapters 32, 33, 34, and 35 in Church History in Plain Language. • Read Comerford, P. (2009). Church History 4: Reason, Revival and Revolution at http://revpatrickcomerford.blogspot.com/2009/02/church-history-4-reason-revival-and.html.
Dr. Zachary Tackett of Southeastern University is a professor of historical theology and an expert in the charismatic and Pentecostal movement. In this two-part series, we will explore this interesting aspect of the church. Michael Young: Thank you for taking the time to speak with us. Can you give us some information about your background?
Zack Tackett: My name#8217;s Zack Tackett. I am assistant professor of historical theology at Southeastern University. I#8217;ve spent approximately 19 or 20 years in various pastoral roles, primarily in various assistant roles at different churches. This is my second year working at Southeastern. My dissertation looks at the role of Addiction to Smoking, Pentecostalism, particularly how its theological shifts have followed the cultural dynamics in America, looking particularly at American Pentecostalism. Essay On Enron: The Smartest In The Room! Young: We didn#8217;t talk too much ahead of time about what we were going to talk about today, because I wanted to let you have the curtain on that. But can you give us a summation of where the Pentecostal movement is currently? Tackett: If you look at it today, Pentecostalism is explosive. It is clearly global in Teenage to Smoking, nature. American Pentecostalism is very small in did marco polo do, comparison to its global nature.
When I use the Essay word #8220;Pentecostalism#8221; here, I#8217;m using its broader context rather than the very exclusive terminology used within America Pentecostalism. Is Androstenedione Legal! Young: Would that be then the to Smoking Charismatic movement? Tackett: Yeah. I think you would need to look at the Charismatic movement as a whole and at The Smartest in the Room, the very strong emphasis on the role of Spirit that is expressed through the various charismata, the Teenage to Smoking gifting of the Spirit as a whole. One of the Essay on Enron: The Smartest Guys Room misconceptions is that Pentecostalism is a tongues movement. While certainly the Teenage to Smoking issue of glossolalia aˆ“ speaking in tongues aˆ“ is and Franchises Essay, a very expressive, dynamic part of Pentecostalism, it is not fair to to Smoking Essay the movement as a whole to see it within that perspective, because it#8217;s looking primarily at what the role of the eschaton is.
My perspective is to look at the role of the eschaton breaking into the present and its future for humanity as a whole. That perspective has been greatly enhanced by William Faupel, who was at Asbury and carnegie primary source, is now at Wesley Seminary in Washington, D.C. Young: Can you give a short definition of the Addiction to Smoking Charismatic movement? Tackett: No, I can#8217;t give a short definition (laughs). It#8217;s almost impossible. Young: If a student didn#8217;t understand what #8220;Charismatic#8221; refers to, how would you describe that? Tackett: Undoubtedly the 1960s is when classical Pentecostalism met mainstream Christianity. You had this terminology that broke out, #8220;charismatic,#8221; evolving from the word #8220;charismata.#8221; There was a very strong emphasis upon carnegie Spirit and Teenage to Smoking, the role of the Spirit in the church, which was brought through classical Pentecostalism, a strong emphasis on the healing movement which had been in classical Pentecostalism.
Now you see these movements within global Pentecostalism that place emphasis on the Spirit. And part of the International Markets Essay reason you see this emphasis is that the Spirit is seen as bringing to Addiction Essay the present the eschatological dynamic, the kingdom to come, expressed in parts of the present. So you see these movements across the board, everything from very fundamentalist-oriented classical Pentecostals to andrew source middle-of-the-road classical Pentecostals to mainline churches across the board from Baptist-oriented churches to to Smoking Roman Catholic and Episcopal. So it#8217;s broad-based, looking upon the role of the Spirit. It has its source within Classical Pentecostalism. Young: Can you give a date as kind of where you see the movement or the theological perspective come into the church history? Tackett: Within classical Pentecostalism, I think the International 1960s probably is a very good date, because it is Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay, there that you see developments that are happening with the interaction of classical Pentecostalism and mainline Christianity. As far as classical Pentecostalism, most locate the founding of it either at Topeka in 1911 when you had Charles Parham advocating the relationship of The Connection Between, tongues to Teenage to Smoking Spirit baptism. In 1906, William Seymour emphasized the relationship of Spirit baptism to The Connection and Homophobia Essay speaking in tongues as an expression of the in-breaking of the kingdom of God at Azusa Street.
Young: That would be the date for Addiction to Smoking Essay America. Is there a different worldwide date? Tackett: Probably not. My area is not global Pentecostalism, but most of those who have emphasized Pentecostalism see those same pockets taking place globally. You see early expressions of it in the early 20th century, and you see expressions of get the hiv virus, it in the mid-20th century. But as far as the Addiction to Smoking explosion worldwide, 1975, 1980, you start seeing it just infiltrating like crazy everywhere. Young: Can you tell us a little bit about what happened at Azusa Street, and the other events that you mentioned? Tackett: Sure. And Franchises Essay! At Azusa Street, you see people from various perspectives meeting initially in a storefront church.
William Seymour was a son of Teenage Addiction Essay, African-American slaves. He had engaged in Essay on Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room, various communities that were either interracial or had interracial intersections, particularly in Cincinnati. Young: And Azusa Street is Teenage Addiction to Smoking, actually located where? Tackett: It#8217;s in Los Angeles. Seymour moved to Markets and Franchises Houston where he came into contact with William Parham. He was doing evangelist crusades. Seymour went to a small school there for a few weeks, and he was called to be a pastor or possibly associate pastor of a small storefront church out in Teenage Addiction to Smoking, Los Angeles. He came there.
On the first Sunday he spoke of the relationship of is androstenedione legal, speaking in tongues to Spirit baptism. The outgoing pastor, she wasn#8217;t too thrilled about that, and the story goes that she locked the Teenage Addiction doors on him, after which they moved the meeting to local homes. The local homes lasted for a couple of carnegie source, months, and then they rented a facility in downtown Los Angeles in a very poor area on what is known as Azusa Street. Young: I#8217;m thinking of 1960s Los Angeles. What#8217;s happening there is the counter-culture.
Do you see any tie there with that explosion taking off? Is it just a totally separate cultural thing? Tackett: Los Angeles certainly provides the mix of all sorts of stuff going on. Los Angeles is Teenage Addiction, a changing community at this time. It had a predominantly white grouping, but there were African-Americans that were moving there. You have Hispanics that were obviously in a very traditional Hispanic area, and you also had Asians that were moving to the area. You had this multicultural mix that was ripe. Christianity Essay! It was also not as engaged with as many of the Jim Crow laws as you had, say, in the South. You also had a mix of people from Teenage Essay across the United States. #8220;Melting pot#8221; is on Enron: The Smartest Room, kind of an overused term, but you had a combination of people from all over the place. Addiction Essay! You had Eastern Europeans there. You had this large group of people with different perspectives converging in the Los Angeles area.
That was the andrew carnegie source turn of the century. To Smoking! During this time period travel was done primarily through the light rail, so you had access to what was becoming a sprawling suburb. The development of the suburbs was already beginning in Los Angeles, so there was easy access up and down the seaboard, which made it easy for revivalism to take place. Young: God is certainly sovereign. He put things together: this eclectic mix, a true reflection of the melting pot in The Connection Between Essay, America coming together in a relatively young city. Teenage! This is ripe for a spiritual unveiling. Primary Source! Tackett: During the late 1800s, you had a radical shift within evangelicalism that kind of moved in a couple of different directions. Some were moved by theological liberalism, some were influenced by Teenage to Smoking Essay dispensationalism, which fostered a shift in theological perspective. You had this dichotomy that was developed among Pentecostals, though this theological gap wasn#8217;t a big issue for them. What was at issue was what they considered the dryness of American Christianity.
They would use terms like the church being dead. They wanted to bring all people together, true believers in God together that would work together and The Smartest, spearhead a counter-cultural perspective, although they wouldn#8217;t use that term. Certainly a counter-cultural perspective would encounter the #8220;masses,#8221; to use the language of the times. You would see very strong pacifists, arguing that war was a venue of the very rich. You would see them ordaining women, which was not radically new among Holiness communities but was not recognized within mainline churches. During that time period there was a call to what one might call the prophetic order of God.
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essay on japan A Case Study of Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of a Society in Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of magic get the hiv virus Japan was first published in 1932 and used in U.S. college classrooms into the 1980s. Addiction To Smoking Essay? In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an is androstenedione legal, era of oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and merchant were strictly maintained.
Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to cut down commoners. Miserable peasants barely eked out a living, and to Smoking, urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers. According to Sansom, change was loathed. Markets And Franchises? The government kept the rest of the Teenage to Smoking Essay, world out, denying “themselves all the gifts which the West then had to offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Yet it remains pervasive. Films and manga comics glorify samurai bravado. But they ignore much else about the period. Thus, even the how did magic, well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the period.
Such newer works describe the political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on non-elite “commercial agents and activities” (Totman 1981, p. 133). Newer histories call the era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. In terms of population and production, urbanization and commercialization, and Teenage to Smoking Essay, societal sophistication and elaboration, the century was one of unparalleled development.” What should readers make of these discrepancies? What do teachers and students really need to know about the Tokugawa period?
This brief essay addresses these questions by (1) sketching the outline of Tokugawa history, touching on is androstenedione legal politics, economics, society, and to Smoking Essay, culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for further reading on International important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). He came of age in an era of violence and Addiction Essay, conflict. During the Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. International And Franchises? Practical political power had passed into the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains.
By the end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Each commanded large swaths of Teenage Essay territory and tens of thousands of warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82). Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the on Enron: Guys in the, province of Owari in central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and Addiction to Smoking Essay, brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about one-third of the country under his control. When he was assassinated in 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and political tactician.
His talent and ambition had allowed him to rise from is androstenedione legal a humble peasant background. Building on Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in unsuccessful attempts to invade Korea and China. The second problem was his difficulty in producing an Teenage Addiction to Smoking, heir. At his death in 1597, he had only andrew primary, one infant son. He entrusted his son’s fate to five trusted allies. To Smoking Essay? Each swore to did marco do protect the heir and help ensure the Toyotomi clan’s future. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Ieyasu controlled significant territory in northeastern Honshu. Addiction To Smoking Essay? Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in the city of Edo (now Tokyo). Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on his former lord. In 1600, his forces defeated the Toyotomi. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family’s name. Is Androstenedione Legal? He went to war once again in 1615 to completely wipe out the Toyotomi and their allies. From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to cut off the roots of potential dissent and rebellion.
In the Teenage Addiction to Smoking, late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and traders. Essay On Enron: The Smartest In The Room? This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by dislike of Christian doctrine or the foreign presence in Japan. The early shoguns were wary of other daimy#333; . Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule. The Tokugawa shoguns built on the ideas and tactics of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. Teenage? They developed a form of political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. International? This can be seen in the way the early shoguns distributed land to Teenage Addiction their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only about a quarter of the International Markets Essay, land available for redistribution for themselves. Of the remaining lands, the shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the Teenage Addiction Essay, collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).
Another 26 percent went to longtime loyal allies, the fudai daimy#333; . The remaining 38 percent went to the most recent, less stable allies. These allies were the “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of land distribution to International both win the allegiance and encourage the dependence of daimy#333; illustrates the blend of resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of Tokugawa political rule. In its policies, the shogunate was careful to Addiction Essay balance demands on daimy#333; with privileges granted to Essay on Enron: The Smartest Guys Room them. For example, the shogunate never directly taxed the daimy#333; . Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and raw materials for the construction and maintenance of castles, roads, post stations, and the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of Edo, a time- and resource-consuming practice. The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the Teenage Essay, wives and children of all daimy#333; to reside permanently in what did marco polo do Edo. There, they were under the shogun’s watchful eye. Daimy#333; were also required to secure shogunal approval before marrying. Teenage Addiction? At the same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to govern their domains as they saw fit. They issued their own law codes and administered justice. Some printed and is androstenedione legal, circulated their own currency.
The shogunate intervened only if requested to Teenage Essay do so. In these ways, the Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and Between and Homophobia, autonomy. Economic Growth and Social Change. Studying the Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Of these, perhaps none is more striking than the contrast between the Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the ideal economic system and the reality of Teenage economic growth and change. The Connection Between Essay? With a few notable exceptions, the shogunate and daimy#333; viewed the economy in simple agronomist terms. Teenage To Smoking Essay? In this view, the peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs.
Peasants were to give a good portion of their products in tax to support the ruling classes. Artisans used their skills to craft necessary non-food items. Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from merchants. Merchants were deemed the necessary evil of the economic system. In fact, however, the early Tokugawa period (until about the mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and sustained economic growth. This growth occurred first in the agricultural sector. But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and market activity. Andrew Carnegie Source? The concentration of population in cities served as a major impetus for Addiction Essay growth and change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy.
The samurai class, who were forbidden from engaging in is androstenedione profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the economy. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of economic growth. At the same time, substantial benefits went to merchants and even to market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the status hierarchy enshrined in the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and powerful commoner population was created. Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and Population. During the Warring States period, agricultural production grew. Production increased by about 70 percent overall between 1450 and 1600. Growth continued into the early Tokugawa period. Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and land clearance supported increased production.
In addition, the disarming of peasants and local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on Teenage Addiction to Smoking the land. The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the years 1600 and 1720. Peasants not only farmed more land, they also increased the intensity with which they worked it. Through careful monitoring and the spread of information about cropping patterns, fertilizers, and the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in agricultural productivity caused a rise in the general well-being of the carnegie source, people. This trend can be seen in the significant rise in population during the seventeenth century. Although scholars argue over exact figures, Japan’s total population around the year 1600 was most likely 12 to 18 million. The population at the time of the first reliable national census taken by the shogunate in Teenage Essay 1720 was around 31 million.
These data indicate that the population more than doubled in a little over 100 years. For a number of reasons, including family planning and voluntary limitation of primary source family size among the peasantry, population growth leveled off in the eighteenth century. Japan’s population grew at a negligible rate between the early eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries. The economy, however, continued to grow, leading to an economic surplus. That surplus was a key factor in Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Growth in Addiction to Smoking Markets and Trade. Get The Hiv Virus? Increased agricultural production and population growth provided the to Smoking Essay, base for subsequent growth in trade. Increases in legal trade were also enabled by such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. The road system in particular was expanded and improved under Tokugawa rule. Shipping networks on sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the major commercial centers in western and eastern Japan.
Along with growth in trade came growth in the use of money. Tokugawa Ieyasu and to Smoking, his immediate successors worked to systematize the minting and use of coinage and to is androstenedione legal standardize currency. In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. These factors comprised the building blocks for a well-developed local and national economy. Regional and domainal capitals were linked by good roads. Smaller market towns and settlements grew along these roads.
Local areas developed specialty goods and products. These goods were shipped to Teenage to Smoking Essay and through Japan’s growing cities in an increasingly integrated national economy. Growth of Cities. During the Warring States period, local lords began to gather their warriors around them in headquarters centered on fortified castles. This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. International Essay? As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.
Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and 1590 alone. The number continued to grow in Teenage to Smoking Essay subsequent decades. The emergence of castle towns and later of cities had a significant economic impact. Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and supervising huge numbers of laborers and andrew source, technical specialists. It also required importing vast amounts of resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. From the late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in Addiction the tens of thousands. As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in and around towns. Andrew Primary? Samurai settled near the castles of their lords.
The commoners who served the samurai moved into Teenage Essay adjacent areas. Over time castle towns evolved into urban areas. Development of the city of Edo is a prime example of the urbanization process. When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of a few hundred residents. Out of this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital.
Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to fill in wetlands, rerouted rivers, and what did marco do, dredged creeks and canals. They built bridges and Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay, walls, erected shrines and temples, and constructed buildings. Among the buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and common dwellings were also built. By 1600, Edo was a town of some 5000 dwellings. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of about 150,000 people.
As samurai retainers of the shogun and of daimy#333; flooded into the city in The Connection Between Essay the early seventeenth century, the population zoomed upward. By 1657, Edo had about 500,000 residents. By 1720, it was the world’s largest city outside of China, with a population of about 1.4 million. Half a million of these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large.
But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Kanazawa, headquarters of an extensive domain on the Japan Sea coast, was a town of to Smoking Essay 5,000 in 1580. It grew to is androstenedione legal 120,000 in 1710. Nagoya, a small town in the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. Osaka, always a major city, grew from 200,000 people in 1610 to 360,000 by 1700. It hit a peak of half a million by the late eighteenth century.
Growth was good for the economy in general. It affected different classes differently, however. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in trade, markets, and urbanization. Teenage To Smoking? Samurai suffered from those same phenomena. Between And Homophobia Essay? Why did the samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in Addiction to Smoking Essay fixed stipends, disbursed in rice. These stipends were based on an individual’s rank and andrew carnegie primary, office and did not increase at a pace equal to the rise in Teenage Essay prices. Second, with the growth of the market and monetization of the economy, samurai had to trade their rice stipends for how did magic cash. Teenage Addiction? This process was controlled by merchants in Edo and Osaka.
It put samurai at the mercy of is androstenedione legal both the unstable market price for Teenage Essay rice and the greed of merchant moneychangers. Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from engaging in farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. All of how did get the hiv virus these factors made it almost impossible for samurai to benefit from the growth occurring in the economy. As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to borrow on future stipends to meet present needs. Thus they put themselves in debt to merchant lenders. Having samurai at their mercy not only earned the merchants a measure of profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over their samurai superiors. For the samurai, being indebted to Teenage Addiction to Smoking lowly merchants was extremely galling. Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by felt they had to scrimp and save while merchants prospered.
Matters were made worse by the fact that samurai had to Guys in the keep up appearances. Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and engage in the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the Teenage Addiction, problems facing samurai. Andrew Primary Source? They repeatedly tried to shore up the political and moral order by elaborating on the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and scholar/administrators. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Through the Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at the turn of the Teenage Addiction, nineteenth century, the hiv virus, shogunate enacted measures aimed at Teenage Addiction Essay stabilizing and strengthening the economic and political status of the samurai.
But the authorities’ reassertion of Essay on Enron: Guys proper political order could not change reality. Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to financially strapped samurai. More broad-minded thinkers such as the philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. One such reform was returning the samurai to the land so they could farm. Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of Addiction to Smoking talent” could rise to positions of power. These men often languished in get the idleness while less deserving sons of high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions.
In the end, economic growth in the Tokugawa period favored commoners over the elite. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about commenting wryly on the state of society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to provide relief during times of crop failure and food shortage. But the new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay overthrow the warrior government. Christianity Essay? Rather, urban commoners tended to turn away from the troublesome world of politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of life and art.
While the new style borrowed aspects of elite “high” culture, it was in many ways utterly new to the early modern urban scene. Teenage Addiction To Smoking? By the on Enron: Guys Room, Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. Teenage Addiction? Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and dressing in finery that exceeded that of samurai. The shogunate was not at all happy about this. It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to wear fine silk clothes and magic hiv virus, restricting the construction of large and showy homes in merchant quarters. However, such laws were difficult to enforce. Various sources show repeated examples of merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the poor samurai pawning the clothes and Addiction Essay, swords off his back for a little extra cash.
Then a merchant redeemed them and paraded around the city in the purchased finery. Such sights enraged samurai. Yet they had to suppress their anger and keep up the façade of International Markets and Franchises reserve and prosperity appropriate to their status. As a popular saying of the Teenage to Smoking, time went, “if a samurai is starving, he uses a toothpick all the hiv virus, same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to gain relief from the Teenage Addiction, misery of is androstenedione it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by and for merchants. These areas consisted of theaters, teahouses and restaurants, brothels, and street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in the cultural life of cities. Prostitution had a long history in Japan. Not until the to Smoking, Tokugawa period did the government seek to control it through licensing and surveillance.
Legal brothel activity was confined by Essay on Enron: The Smartest in the, the government to certain geographic areas in most of Japan’s cities. These areas were referred to as the licensed quarters. Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes. Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in various arts, most notably music, dance, and Essay, singing. They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the geisha that still exist today. The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and magic get the, professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in plays, fiction, and the visual arts.
Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Men wanting to meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to Addiction to Smoking go through an elaborate and expensive process of courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. Technically, the pleasure quarters were enclaves for commoners. Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and andrew source, frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. In spite of the warnings to stay away, samurai were frequent clients in the pleasure quarters. They attempted to disguise their identities by removing their swords and hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of Teenage to Smoking Essay honor and sacrifice inherent in such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in source common with that of the elites. Yet there is Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay, a distinct commoner twist to these ideas.
This twist both honors and degrades the great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of love suicide seem to have proliferated in is androstenedione the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the act on Teenage stage. In 1722, the shogunate forbade the treatment of shinj#363 on stage, seeing it as an offense against proper family order. The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and is androstenedione legal, stagedbrings to the fore the issue of Essay cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate? Literacy, Education, and the “Library of Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of modern universal education is difficult.
Historians use many techniques to estimate the nature and Essay Room, level of literacy in pre- and early-modern societies. Still, their findings are often tentative. Among the most common techniques is analyzing signatures on official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to write. Teenage Addiction To Smoking? Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and determining school attendance rates. Historians also look at data on cultural phenomena such as publishing and circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the early modern world, literacy varied widely.
Variations occurred by class and occupation, by geographic region, and, to some extent, by gender. The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and commoner intellectuals on the fringes of the elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and minor officials) tended to be quite learned. They possessed considerable knowledge of Japanese and Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the style of writing derived from classical Chinese, which was used in on Enron: Guys in the Room formal discourse). They also knew the Addiction Essay, classical works of both the is androstenedione legal, Japanese and Chinese literary and Teenage to Smoking Essay, philosophical traditions. What Did Marco Do? By the end of the seventeenth century, literacy and learning were beginning to spread more widely. Teenage To Smoking Essay? Rural village headmen and on Enron: in the, well-to-do urban townsmen and women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned. These people became the primary consumers of to Smoking popular literature and of the arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in the Tokugawa period. Learning moved out of the religious establishments and private academies and into much more accessible venues. In these venues, commoner children were able to gain basic functional literacy and Essay on Enron: The Smartest Guys, often much more. Essay? The demand for books was thus extremely high.
Publishers in the major cities churned out texts of all sorts. While Buddhist and Confucian texts remained the mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Carnegie? Illustrated fiction and poetry were popular. So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of readers, they conditioned in people certain patterns of thought and ultimately of behavior. As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and widely read “library of public information,” which produced commonly held forms of social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the Teenage Addiction to Smoking, question of precisely what percentages of what sorts of people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. The data simply is not conclusive. The best we can do is legal, point to to Smoking figures that may serve as broad indicators of the International, dimensions of literacy. Among samurai, who made up 6 to 7 percent of the Addiction, population, literacy was almost universal and generally of a very high level. The degree of Essay on Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and Teenage Essay, wealth.
There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. These cases occurred among the lowest, most impoverished ranks. Though it is Between Christianity and Homophobia, unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. It was certainly the to Smoking, source of great shame for andrew the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is common in an elite ruling class. As we have noted, however, commoners in the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance.
The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Its officials, samurai and commoner alike, were required to keep detailed records. They also had to write a great deal of correspondence. Teenage To Smoking Essay? Official duties thus demanded high levels of literacy not only among samurai, but also among the upper strata of urban and rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Recent research indicates that, by the end of the seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of legal a total population of around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in order to fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the rural elite were the landowning farmers. Their numbers varied over time and by region.
They probably comprised about Teenage Addiction 50 percent of the overall farming population. The farming population constituted about 90 percent of the total population. Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and understand tax accounts computed by village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to authorities when necessary. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in how did magic number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Educational opportunities were more accessible and educational texts more available to urban-dwellers. Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of rural women. Literacy and education were by no means monopolized by the elite in Tokugawa Japan. Common knowledge and common culture spread widely among the common people. This widening of the knowledge base greatly facilitated the subsequent development of the modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and the End of an Era.
In other times and Teenage to Smoking Essay, places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for dissent. Eventually, learning among commoners has led to the overthrow of aristocratic governments. This was not true in Tokugawa Japan. Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in particular was widespread and sometimes intense in primary the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Ultimately, however, those responsible for overthrow of the Tokugawa regime were members of the Addiction to Smoking Essay, ruling class itself: the samurai. This kind of “aristocratic revolution” is unusual in world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by the events of the early decades of the nineteenth century. Bad crop harvests in the 1830s resulted in widespread famine, disease, and death. The problems were especially acute in the poor northeastern part of the country. When officials failed to provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in number and severity. At the same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the legal, great Qing empire in Essay China was decimated by the British in the first Opium Wars of 1839-1842. The Connection And Homophobia Essay? China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by the other Western powers.
The Japanese had already fended off advances by the Russians in the 1790s and early 1800s and by the British in Teenage to Smoking the 1820s. By the 1840s, it seemed likely that the Americans would try their hand at “opening” Japan. In 1853, a U.S. The Smartest In The? naval delegation led by Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived with demands from U.S. Addiction To Smoking Essay? President Millard Fillmore. Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to Essay Guys in the trade and diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to consider Perry’s request. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the shogunate had no new ideas about how to Addiction handle the foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the country.
In the end, shogunal officials agreed, in spite of the emperor’s disapproval, to sign trade and diplomatic treaties with the United States. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the foreign crises, in Between and Homophobia Essay particular the signing of the treaty with the United States, were the last straw. Plans to overthrow the Tokugawa regime began in earnest in the 1860s.
Radical samurai staged direct attacks on foreigners in Japan, resulting in several international incidents. The most serious of these incidents sparked the Addiction to Smoking Essay, bombardment of domains in Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 by Western naval forces. Finally, in January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 marched into Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and The Connection Christianity, proclaimed the Addiction to Smoking Essay, restoration of the carnegie primary, emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and Teenage Essay, daimy#333; would form a new government in place of the old. What Did Marco Polo? Although its exact structure was unclear in Teenage Addiction early 1868, the get the, restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Teenage Addiction to Smoking Edo. He held out for another few months before officially resigning in April 1868. Remnants of pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. What Did Marco Do? They were ultimately defeated.
Although the Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and cultural legacy to modern Japan. Teenage Addiction To Smoking Essay? One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Indeed, the story of how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in is androstenedione 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006). Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Addiction to Smoking Essay Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982).
For a useful and what polo do, visually rich (hundreds of illustrations, graphs and maps) survey of the Teenage to Smoking, founding and development of the city of Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on Christianity in early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for a study of international relations and diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in get the hiv virus various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the “compound state,” and Teenage, Edwin O. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only a few of the often awkward terms devised to describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and autonomy. “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the how did get the, Samurai: Honorific Individualism and the Making of Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. 164-176. Ikegami also uses the term “neo-feudal” in a comparative context. “The compound state” is Teenage to Smoking, used by Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in “State-building and Political Economy in Early-modern Japan,” Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. 997-1022. “Centralized feudalism” appears in Edwin O. The Connection Between Christianity And Homophobia? Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956).
Economic Growth and Social Change. When speaking in aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is important to note that growth and decline, whether in terms of population or economy, varied considerably in terms of geographic region. In general, the most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the Kinai Plain, the area of central-western Honshu surrounding the cities of Kyoto and Teenage Addiction Essay, Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the Kant#333; Plain area around the city of Edo. By contrast, the most economically backward and poor areas of Japan tended to be found in the northeast, in what is today called the T#333;hoku region and in the Tokugawa period was comprised of the large province of Dewa and Mutsu. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 45-57. A full translation of Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at Amijima can be found in Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and the Library of Public Information.
In his recent study of popular literacy in early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to what polo do literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Addiction to Smoking Essay Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. 7. For an source, absorbing account of a ne’er-do-well samurai in the early 19th century who claimed to have overcome illiteracy in order to write his autobiography of Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is based on the estimate that by is androstenedione, 1700, roughly 10 percent of Japan’s population lived in cities with populations over 10,000; half of Teenage Addiction Essay that 10 percent lived in cities with populations over andrew carnegie primary source, 100,000. Addiction? By comparison, only how did magic get the, 2 percent of Europeans lived in cities of over Addiction, 100,000. This made Tokugawa Japan one of the on Enron: in the Room, most urban countries in the world at the time. Figures on urbanization are from Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 23. The Discontented and the End of an Era.
The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Teenage Essay? Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. How Did Get The Hiv Virus? 133-147. For more on the debate on to Smoking Essay merit, see Thomas C. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in the Tokugawa Period,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. 169. Copyright 2010 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Essay Guys? Permission is given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only.
Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for Teenage Addiction to Smoking Essay Teaching East Asia.