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Annotations: Defining Sites to what of nature Search. This page describes how to define the coverage of your search engine using a TSV file or XML annotations file. Adding sites individually using the Custom Search Control Panel can be tedious if you're building a large search engine. Causes Of World War 2! In addition, managing a large collection of is a of nature sites in the Control Panel isn't fun either. What Causes War 2! Instead, you can add and manage a lot of state sites by listing them in an annotations file and uploading it. George Grenville! In addition, annotations filesparticularly XML onesgive you far greater control over the ranking of search results. Note: annotations files hosted on your own website will no longer be supported starting in April 2017. You can upload annotations files via the Control Panel. What Of Nature! An annotations file is simply a list of The Canadian Spirit: Canada’s annotations.

Each annotation has two components: the site and its associated labels. The label tells Custom Search how to handle a site; that is, whether a site should be included, excluded, promoted, or demoted. What State Of Nature! In the context file, you define labels; in the annotations file, you tag sites with the appropriate labels. Annotations files can be in any of the following formats: When you start editing your annotations file, start out with a small number of annotations, and then test some search queries in the Preview tab of the Control Panel. It's easier to test and essay example, troubleshoot your search engine with a handful of annotations. When you get the results that you expect, incrementally add more annotations.

You can upload the annotations file to is a state the Control Panel. Are The Causes! For details about file limits, see the Annotations Limits section. Before you start creating annotations, determine which file format best suits your needs. If your search engine increases in complexity, you can consider using multiple annotations files, even files of is a different formats. For example, you can upload OPML annotations files generated by other sites and XML annotations files you created.

Custom Search combines all the annotations files in all your search engines into a single XML annotations file. Interpretive Essay! Use the following table to what state pick the appropriate format: OPML is essay, a type of XML format that was originally developed for defining ordered lists of elements or outlines, but it is now also commonly used for web feeds. OPML specification. If you have OPML files from what state some feed aggregators, you can upload the why was the great important, OPML file without bothering with typing each site. Custom Search grabs the value of the OPML attribute htmlUrl and adds it to the list of sites to is a state search. You can upload multiple OPML files for each of your search engines. Here's an example of an OPML file: When you upload an OPML file in You Save May Be Own by the Control Panel, Custom Search automatically converts OPML to Custom Search XML.

It adds search engine labels ( Label name=_cse_example/ ) and state of nature, scores ( score=1 ). Mpre information about scores. The following is an example of an OPML file that has been converted to are the causes war 2 have Custom Search XML: You can create annotations using a text file with tab-separated values (TSV). You can use a plain text editor or a spreadsheet editor to create the file. It does not matter what you name the is a state, file, so long as you save it with the file extension .tsv (for example, cse_bicycles.tsv ). If you are using a plain text editor, separate each element by a single tab character. Do not try to prettify and align the definition, lines with multiple tab characters. What Is A State! If you are using a spreadsheet editor, allocate a column for Spirit: World Essay each of the fields. What Is A! Each line of text in your TSV file can list a site and grenville, its associated labels. Your TSV files must begin with a heading that enumerates the what is a state of nature, fields that you will be using in the subsequent annotation lines. The headings are case-sensitive, so follow the capitalization in You Save May Be Own by Essay this guide. The order of the is a state, heading elements doesn't really matter, but the annotation lines that follow the heading must follow the order of the headings. Why Was Important! When you create the headings, you are essentially creating columns of data, so you can't just plug the annotation data any which way.

A heading has the following fields: URL - The URL pattern of the site. Label - The search engine label or refinement label that should be applied to the site. You can get the labels for your search engine from the Context section of the Advanced tab in the Control Panel. State! You'll find at essay least two search engine or background labels: one for adding sites to your custom search engine and of nature, one for excluding sites from george definition it. If you have not changed the search engine label, the label for including sites is in the form of _cse_xxxxxxxxxxx , where x is a character, and the label for what is a state excluding sites is in the form of _cse_exclude_xxxxxxxxxxx . To avoid errors, copy and paste these labels instead of typing them by hand. Comment - Optional . Notes about each annotation. Score - Optional . Discussed in detail in the Ranking Search Results page. Custom Field - Optional . Your own attributes. To create an attribute, just prefix it with A= . Definition! For example, to is a of nature create a date attribute, use A=Date . Custom Search does not process these fields. Each subsequent line corresponds to an annotation.

It provides the values for the fields that were defined in the headings. Let's look at an example of a basic TSV file. The example has a heading with the two required fields: URL and are the of world, Label . The two annotation lines supply the values for the fields. The label in the first annotation line, _cse_Ansi-stoubiq , adds the site, www.webmd.com/hw/* , to the search engine. The other label, _cse_exclude_Ansi-stoubiq , excludes the site, www.webmd.com/hw/cancer/* , from the search engine. You can add more fields to your TSV annotations. Here's an exmple that includes a Comment field and a custom field, A=Date . Even though you added new fields in the header, you are not obligated to supply the values for all them, which is what is a state of nature, why it's fine for the last line to not have a comment. But that's not the case for URL and high distance, Label , which are required fields. Using the Custom Search XML Format. If you want to take advantage of all the features available in the Custom Search API, XML is the way to what is a state go.

You can create XML annotations files in three ways. The following table describes the different strategies for the XML format. It's just a matter of preference, so you should not worry too much about picking the right way to interpretive example annotate your search engine. If you change your mind, you can reorganize your annotations by cutting and pasting. A communal annotations file enables you to list sites only once, yet have the what of nature, flexibility to change inclusion, exclusion, and ranking of the george definition, same sites for various search engines. For example, one of your search engines could restrict its search to five sites, another could eliminate those sites, and yet another could promote those sites. When you upload your files in the Control Panel, Custom Search merges all your annotations into a single annotations file that is shared by all your search engines.

This is the annotations file you download from the Control Panel. You can distinguish the annotations by what is a of nature, their search engine labels (the value in the Label element and the name attribute). Essay! If you prefer to keep the annotations for each search engine separate, you should maintain the what state, original annotations files and upload them to the Control Panel when you make changes. To keep things simple, stick with using the XML format. Do not alternate between using the XML format and the Sites tab in the Control Panel to include or exclude sites, because changes made to the Sites tab are appended to The Life You Save Flannery the communal annotations file and you'll have to copy these new annotations to your copy of the annotations file.

The following is an example of XML annotations. It is roughly the XML version of the TSV example in the previous section. It includes the what is a, same elements, except for custom attributes, which are available only in why was the great compromise the TSV format. This annotations file tells Custom Search to include everything under www.webmd.com/hw/* but exclude everything under www.webmd.com/hw/cancer/*. The annotations file has four elements in the following hierarchy: To list sites you want your search engine to what cover, do the the following: Start the file with the Annotations/Annotations root element. Create an annotation by adding the Annotation/Annotation tags, and then define the about attribute with the URL pattern of the george grenville definition, site.

Associate the site with the search engine by using the Label name= / tag, and specify how that site should be treated by the search engine. You can get the labels for your search engine from the Context section of the Advanced tab in state the Control Panel. You'll find two labels: one for interpretive adding sites to your custom search engine and one for excluding sites from it. If you have not changed the name of the search engine label in the context file, the label for including sites is in the form of _cse_xxxxxxxxxxx , where x is a character, and the label for excluding sites is in the form of _cse_exclude_xxxxxxxxxxx . To avoid errors, copy and paste these labels instead of typing them by what state of nature, hand. A single site can have multiple labels associated with it, and it can be treated differently by different search engines. For example, the site http://www.solarenergy.org/ can be included in both your solar energy search engine and excluded from your bike search engine. The same site will be ranked differently in the result pages of different search engines. If you have changed the name of the label in The Canadian Spirit: Canada’s Contribution the context file, remember to what is a of nature update the Label name values in your annotations files.

Custom Search is grenville definition, built on top of the Google index. What State Of Nature! This means that webpages that are in the Google index are available to your search engine; conversely, webpages that have not been crawled by Google will not show up in your search results. If you want your custom search engine to why was compromise include sites that are not currently in the Google index, submit a Sitemap to Google Search Console. Is A State Of Nature! A Sitemap includes a list of pages in your site, as well as information about the update frequency of the high power, webpages and their importance relative to each other. Submitting a Sitemap helps Google discover your webpages and improve the is a state, crawling schedule. To learn more about Sitemaps, see the Webmaster Help Center and interpretive example, Using the Sitemap Protocol. If you are interested in is a of nature building fancier Sitemaps, see http://www.sitemaps.org/protocol.php.

Submitting Sitemaps is particularly helpful if your site has the following: Dynamic content Webpages that aren't easily discovered by Googlebot (Google's web crawler), such as pages with rich AJAX or Flash features Few websites linking to it. Googlebot crawls the why was compromise important, web by following links from one page to another, so if your site isn't well linked, it is hard for the crawler to discover it. If your website is new, probably not many websites are pointing to your site. Google can index only pages it can access. So, if you use robots.txt file or robots meta tags in your webpages, make sure those pages don't block crawlers. Improved coverage is not instantaneous, as it takes some time for the pages to what is a of nature be crawled and The Life May Be Flannery, indexed. But once your webpages are in the index, they could appear in both Google search and your custom search engine. The following table lists the limits for state annotations files that are uploaded to Custom Search: Note: Follow the limits closely; if you exceed them, your search engine might not show results. Tip: If you find your search engines outgrowing the large 5,000-site limit, consider consolidating individual URLs into URL patterns. Except as otherwise noted, the power, content of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, and code samples are licensed under the Apache 2.0 License.

For details, see our Site Policies. Is A Of Nature! Java is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.

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Frequently Asked Questions for what of nature, Cisco IP Communicator. View with Adobe Reader on a variety of grenville definition devices. Frequently Asked Questions. What is Cisco IP Communicator? Cisco IP Communicator is a desktop application that turns your computer into a full-featured Cisco Unified IP Phone, allowing you to what is a state place, receive, and otherwise handle calls from any location where you can connect to the corporate network. For example, if you are on a business trip, you can use your IP Communicator to receive calls and check voice messages while you are online. Or, if you are working from home, coworkers can reach you by high dialing your work number.

Cisco IP Communicator works like a traditional telephone, allowing you to is a state place and george grenville definition receive phone calls, put calls on hold, speed-dial numbers, transfer calls, and so on. What Is A State Of Nature? IP Communicator also supports special telephony features (such as Call Park and george grenville Meet-Me conferencing) that can extend and what is a state customize your call-handling capabilities. IP Communicator also works with Cisco Unified Video Advantage to enhance your communications with video. The operation of your IP Communicator and the features available to The Canadian to the Essay you may vary, depending on the call processing agent used by of nature your company and the configuration of your phone system. Why Was Compromise? Contact your support desk or system administrator for more information. What are the features of Cisco IP Communicator? In addition to call-handling features, Cisco IP Communicator includes: Audio Tuning wizard Quick Search directory dialing Easy access to your Cisco Unified CM User Options web pages and phone services Comprehensive online help system Changing the appearance of IP Communicator Drag-and-drop dialing Cut-and-paste dialing Pop-up incoming call notification Alphanumeric dialing Keyboard shortcuts Video support with Cisco Unified Video Advantage Release 2.1.1. How can I change the settings on my IP Communicator? You can change your IP Communicator settings in the following places.

Most settings are accessible by choosing Preferences from the menu. Is A State Of Nature? You access the menu from the The Canadian Spirit: World Essay menu icon in the window control button bar, by right-clicking anywhere on the interface, or by pressing Shift + F10 . Ring sounds and background image settings are available from the Settings button User Preferences. Some settings are accessed online from your User Options web pages. Phone lines and intercom lines (line buttons) Speed-dial numbers (speed-dial buttons, including the what Busy Line Field (BLF) speed-dial feature) Web-based services (for example, a Personal Address Book button) Call features (for example, a Privacy, Hold, or Transfer button)

Buttons light up to indicate status: Green, steady-Active call or two-way intercom call. Green, flashing-Held call. Amber, steady-Privacy in use, one-way intercom call, or Do Not Disturb (DND) active. Amber, flashing-Incoming call or reverting call. Red, steady-Remote line in use (shared line or BLF status) You can convert extra line buttons into high power distance, speed-dial buttons. How do I answer a call? You can answer a call by using the following methods if they are available at your workstation:

Answer with a USB handset Answer with a headset Answer with the speakerphone Press a hotkey Switch from of nature a connected call to answer a new call Send a call to a voice message system Use AutoAnswer Answer a priority call (Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) phones only) Answer a call on your mobile phone or other remote destination. How do I answer calls automatically? When AutoAnswer is enabled, your phone answers incoming calls automatically after a few rings. Your system administrator configures AutoAnswer to example use either the speakerphone or a headset. You might use AutoAnswer if you receive a high volume of incoming calls. AutoAnswer is disabled when the is a state Do Not Disturb feature is active. How do I answer calls using a hotkey? You can enable this optional feature by clicking the Enable answer hotkey checkbox in the User Preferences screen. Your system administrator will determine which hotkey to distance use.

How do I answer a call that is waiting? How do I use my phone to answer a call that is ringing elsewhere? Click an available line button and PickUp . The call now rings on your line. How do I put calls on hold? Press Hold to is a of nature place a call on hold. High Power Distance? To resume the is a of nature call, highlight it and press Resume. When you put a call on hold, the Hold icon appears on the right in the call information area and the corresponding line button flashes green.

When you place a call on hold with a shared line, the line button flashes green and the phone displays the You Save May Be Own by Flannery Essay Local Hold icon. When another phone places a call on hold, the what state of nature line button flashes red and the phone displays the Remote Hold icon . How do I park a call? During a call, click Park (you might need to power distance click the what of nature more softkey first). Distance? This prompts IP Communicator to store the call. Is A State? Note the call park number displayed on the phone screen and distance hang up. How do I retrieve a parked call? Enter the call park number from any Cisco IP Communicator or IP Phone in your network to what state connect to grenville definition the call. How do I mute a call?

How do I switch calls? To switch between connected calls on one line, highlight the call that you want to switch to and press Resume . The active call is placed on hold and the selected call resumes. To switch between connected calls on different lines, press the green blinking line button for the line that you are switching to. If a single call is what of nature holding on the line, the call automatically resumes. If multiple calls are holding, highlight the appropriate call and press Resume.

Press Answer to The Canadian to the switch from a connected call to answer a ringing call. Any active call is what of nature placed on hold and the selected call resumes. How do I transfer a call to another number? From an are the causes, active call, press Transfer. Enter the target number. If your phone has on-hook transfer enabled, complete the transfer by hanging up. How do I transfer a call to a voice messaging system? How do I transfer two calls to connect with each other, without staying on the line? Scroll to highlight any call on the line. Scroll to what state highlight the second call and press Select . With one of the selected calls highlighted, press DirTrfr (Direct Transfer).

The two calls connect to each other and drop you from the call. If you want to stay on the line with the callers, use Join instead. How do I forward a call? You can use call forwarding features to redirect incoming calls from your phone to Spirit: Contribution World Essay another number. Your system administrator determines which call forwarding features are available to you: Unconditional call forwarding (Call Forward All); applies to is a state of nature all calls that you receive.

Conditional call forwarding (Call Forward No Answer, Call Forward Busy, Call Forward No Coverage). How do I turn off call notifications? You can use the Do Not Disturb (DND) feature to turn off only the ringer on your phone or to turn off all audible and interpretive example visual notifications of of nature incoming calls. Your system administrator enables DND for your phone. Press DND to toggle DND on and off. When DND is high distance active, Do Not Disturb is active is displayed on the phone, the DND icon lights, and is a state the ring tone is Spirit: Canada’s Contribution to the World turned off. How do I end a call? Hang up or press EndCall.

How do I dial a call with IP Communicator? To place a call using a USB handset, pick up the what state of nature handset and enter a number. To place a call using the speakerphone, press Speaker and enter a number. To place a call using a headset, press Headset and enter a number. Why Was The Great Compromise? Or, if Headset is lit, press New Call and enter a number. You can dial on-hook, without a dial tone (pre-dial). To pre-dial, enter a number, and then go off-hook by lifting the USB handset, tapping the number on the touchscreen, or pressing Dial , Speaker , or Headset. When you predial, your phone tries to anticipate the what is a number you are dialing by displaying matching numbers (if available) from your Placed Calls log. Your? This is called Auto Dial. Is A State Of Nature? To call a number that is displayed with Auto Dial, press the number, or scroll to it and go off-hook.

How do I redial a number? Press Redial to dial the last number that you dialed, or press the Navigation button (with the definition phone idle) to what is a state of nature see your Placed Calls. How do I use my computer as a speakerphone? Make sure that the Speaker button is lit so that Cisco IP Communicator operates in speakerphone mode. Unlike other modes, speakerphone mode provides echo suppression. You can toggle speakerphone mode on and off by power distance clicking the what is a state Speaker button or by power entering the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + P. By default, speakerphone mode is active. This means that many of the actions you take to place or answer a call (such as using a speed-dial button or a softkey) automatically trigger speakerphone mode. If you have an analog headset plugged in to the computer, you cannot hear audio through the computer speakers in speakerphone mode. How do I switch to the speakerphone during a call? Click the of nature Speaker button or the definition keyboard shortcut Ctrl + P. What Is A State? If you were using a USB handset before switching, hang it up.

How do I use my computer speakers as a ringer for calls? Make sure that your sound card is assigned to the ringer mode and that you have not muted the are the computer speaker. If you plug an analog headset into your computer, the ringer is audible only from the is a state headset speakers. How can I use AutoAnswer in speakerphone mode? Click the Speaker button to place, answer, and end calls, to open and close lines, and to interpretive example switch from state other audio devices to speakerphone mode. Because speakerphone mode is active by default, you do not need to keep the corresponding button lit as you do for headset mode.

How do I place another call on the same line while a call is active? How do I place another call on another line while a call is active? Press a line button for a new line. The first call is automatically placed on hold. Enter a number.

How do I speed dial a number? Click a speed-dial button before or after going off-hook. Enter a speed dial index number (1-99 on the keypad) while on-hook, and click AbbrDial if you have Abbreviated Dialing set up in your User Options. Highlight an entry in your Personal Address Book (PAB), press Select and then press Fast Dial . You must have Fast Dial configured for your PAB. How do I dial from a call log? Choose Missed Calls , Received Calls ,or Placed Calls and Spirit: Canada’s tap the listing on the touchscreen. How do I dial from a corporate directory? Choose Corporate Directory (its name may vary).

Enter a name and press Search . Highlight a listing and go off-hook. To dial from a corporate directory on your personal computer using Cisco WebDialer: Open a web browser and go to a WebDialer-enabled corporate directory. Is A Of Nature? Click the number that you want to dial. How do I dial from The Canadian Canada’s Essay a Personal Address Book (PAB)? Choose Personal Directory to sign in. Choose Personal Address Book and is a of nature search for a listing. Can I use IP Communicator with my mobile phone?

Perform the following steps to make a call from george grenville a mobile phone using Mobile Voice Access: Obtain your Mobile Voice Access number and PIN from your system administrator. Dial your assigned Mobile Voice Access number. Enter your mobile phone number (if requested) and PIN. Press 1 to make a call to what of nature an enterprise IP phone. Dial a desktop phone number other than your desktop phone number.

How do I place an intercom call? If the intercom target is preconfigured, press an intercom target line and begin speaking after you hear the intercom-alert tone. For other targets, press an essay example, intercom line. Is A Of Nature? Enter the essay example intercom target number or press a speed-dial number for your target. After you hear the intercom-alert tone, begin speaking. How do I receive an intercom call?

When you hear the intercom-alert tone, handle the call in one of these ways: Listen to the message in one-way audio. Talk to the caller by pressing the active intercom line. State Of Nature? Highlight the intercom call and high distance press End Call . How do I place a video call? To make a video call, you must meet these criteria: You must have Cisco Unified Video Advantage installed on your system. Your system must support Skinny Call Control Protocol (SCCP). What State? Cisco IP Communicator must be enabled for interpretive example, video calls on the call-processing server. What Of Nature? After video calls are enabled, your Cisco IP Communicator displays the video camera icon in the lower right corner of the of the the great compromise important phone screen.

You must launch Cisco Unified Video Advantage before you initiate the video call. The person you call must also meet these same criteria and use a device that is a video endpoint. To enable your phone for video calls, contact your system administrator for assistance and see the Cisco Unified Video Advantage User Guide: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/voicesw/ps5662/products_user_guide _list.html. How do I create a conference call? From a connected call, press Confrn (Conference). (You may need to press the more softkey.) Enter the participant's phone number. Wait for the call to connect. Press Confrn again to add the participant to your call. Repeat these steps to add additional participants. Your system administrator determines whether anyone other than the conference initiator can add or remove participants. How can I see a list of conference participants?

Press ConfList (Conference List). Participants are listed in the order in which they join the conference with the most recent additions at state of nature, the top.The initiator of the conference is always listed at the bottom, with an asterisk(*) next to are the causes of world his or her name. Press Update to refresh the list of conference participants. How do I remove a participant from a conference? While you are viewing the conference list, highlight the is a state of nature participant's name and press Remove. To drop the why was important last participant that you added to the conference, press RMLstC (Remove Last Participant) while viewing the conference list. How do I verify that a conference call is secure? Look for state, the Authenticated Call or Encrypted Call icon after Conference on the phone screen. To verify that a participant is interpretive example calling from a secure phone, look for the Authenticated Call or Encrypted Call icon beside the participant's name on is a of nature, the phone screen.

How do I join calls to create a conference? If the high calls are on a single phone line: From an state of nature, active call, highlight another call that you want to essay example include in the conference and press Select . Repeat Step 1 for each call that you want to add. Press Join . State Of Nature? (You may need to are the causes press the more softkey to see Join .) If the of nature calls are on multiple phone lines:

From an active call, press Join . The Canadian Canada’s World? (You may need to press the more softkey to see Join .) Press the green flashing line button for the call(s) that you want to of nature include in the conference. One of the following occurs: The calls are joined. A window opens on your phone screen prompting you to select the call(s) that you want to join. Highlight the call(s) and why was the great compromise press Select , and then press Join to complete the state action.

If your phone does not support Join for calls on multiple lines, transfer the The Canadian Spirit: Contribution World calls to a single line before using Join. How do I use Barge to create a conference? Press the line button for the shared line. What Is A Of Nature? In some cases, you must highlight the call and press cBarge to power distance complete the is a state action. How do I start a Meet-Me conference? Obtain a Meet-Me phone number from your system administrator. Distribute the number to participants.

When you are ready to start the meeting, go off-hook to power distance get a dial tone, and then press MeetMe . Dial the Meet-Me conference number. Participants can now join the conference by what dialing in. Participants hear a busy tone if they call the conference before the the great compromise important initiator has joined. In this case, participants must call back. How do I join a Meet-Me conference? Dial the what is a of nature Meet-Me conference number (provided by the conference initiator). You will hear a busy tone if you call the conference before the initiator has joined. In this case, try your call again. How do I end a Meet-Me conference? All participants must hang up. The conference does not automatically end when the conference initiator disconnects.

How do I set up my voice messaging service? Click the Messages button and follow the why was voice instructions. If a menu appears on your phone screen, choose an appropriate menu item. How do I check for new voice messages? There are audible and visible indicators for new voice messages: An indicator light on what is a state, your handset. (This indicator can vary.) A flashing envelope icon and text message on your phone screen.

The indicator light and Message Waiting icon are displayed only when you have a message on your primary line, even if you receive voice messages on other lines. A stutter tone from your headset or speaker when you place a call. The stutter tone is line-specific. You hear it only when using the the great compromise line with the waiting message. How do I listen to what state of nature my voice messages or access the voice messages menu? Click the Messages button. Depending on your voice message service, doing so either autodials the message service or provides a menu on your phone screen. How do I send a call to my voice messaging system?

Click iDivert . The iDivert feature automatically transfers a call (including a ringing or held call) to your voice message system. Are The Causes? Callers hear your voice message greeting and can leave you a message. How do I change the voice message indicator settings? Right-click and select Cisco Unified CM User Options from the menu. State Of Nature? Sign in to your Cisco Unified CM User Options web pages. Select your device. Click Line Settings , and then make changes to why was the great compromise the Message Waiting Lamp section. Typically, the default policy is to what is a light the indicator when you receive a new voice message. What is the Audio Tuning wizard?

The Audio Tuning wizard guides you through the Your Own by process of selecting and what is a of nature tuning installed audio devices. The Audio Tuning wizard automatically appears the first time that you launch Cisco IP Communicator after installation. Before you use the distance Audio Tuning wizard to tune an what is a, audio device that has its own volume adjuster, such as a headset with inline volume controls, increase the device volume level to the highest setting. The Audio Tuning wizard gives you the opportunity to select audio devices for are the causes war 2, audio modes or to use the default Windows audio device. Tuning a device is a different task from changing the volume setting for a call. Ideally, you tune each device only once and retune only if you encounter voice quality issues. The Check Audio Settings window has appeared. Is A Of Nature? What do I do? Choose one of to the World these buttons: Revert - to re-instate previous settings for this audio device. Tune - to retune this device.

Skip - to maintain modified settings (for example, to what is a state keep the The Life May Be Your Flannery sound card muted) The Check Audio Settings window appears on subsequent launches if you modified (or muted) the volume for a device since you last tuned it. Is A Of Nature? For example, if you muted your computer sound card or changed the george definition volume controls on a USB headset or USB handset. What are audio modes? You must assign one of the following audio mode s to each audio device that you plan to use with Cisco IP Communicator:

Audio mode selection tells Cisco IP Communicator which audio devices you want to use for audio input and output. By default, Cisco IP Communicator selects one audio device for what is a state, all of May Be Flannery O'Connor Essay your audio modes and for the ringer. This device could be a sound card, for example. If you have multiple audio devices available, you have additional configuration options. What Is A? For example, if you have a USB headset, you can select it for are the of world, headset mode and activate it by clicking the Headset button.

You can maintain the state default configuration or customize it. High? If you choose to customize the configuration, follow these recommendations: If you use a USB headset, assign it to headset mode. If you use an external USB speakerphone, assign it to speakerphone mode. If you use a USB handset, assign it to handset mode. If you use an analog headset, assign the computer sound card to headset mode. If you do not have an state of nature, external speakerphone device, select the interpretive essay example computer sound card for what is a state, speakerphone mode. Assign the Spirit: to the ringer to the device that you want to what is a state alert you when you receive a call. Be aware, however, that if you assign the ringer to interpretive example a sound card and plug an analog headset into your computer, you cannot hear the ringer unless you are wearing the headset. How do I use a headset with IP Communicator?

Click the unlit Headset button. Is A State? Doing this activates the device you selected for this mode. If you want headset mode to be the default mode instead, click the Spirit: Canada’s Contribution to the World unlit Headset button and click EndCall . Headset mode acts as the state default audio mode as long as the Headset button remains lit (unless you have a USB handset enabled). How do I use a handset with IP Communicator? Go off-hook with your USB handset (assuming this device is available and is assigned to handset mode). Interpretive Example? The method you use to take a USB handset off-hook depends on how the handset is designed.

You might need to press a hook-switch or an on button. How do I use my IP Communicator as a speakerphone? Click the Speaker button. What State Of Nature? Doing this activates the device you selected for this mode. By default, speakerphone mode is high activated when you click softkeys, line buttons, and speed-dial buttons (unless you have a USB handset enabled). How do I activate the ringer? The ringer becomes active when you receive an incoming call. How do I adjust the volume on my IP Communicator?

To adjust the volume level during a call , click the Volume button, or click the Page Up/Page Down keys on your keyboard during a call or after you hear a dial tone. Click Save to is a state of nature preserve the new volume as the default level for the currently active audio mode. To adjust the are the war 2 volume level for what is a state, the ringer, click the Volume button while Cisco IP Communicator is on-hook (no calls or dial tone are active). The new ringer volume is definition automatically saved. How do I change the state ringtone for a line? Click the Settings button and The Life May Be Flannery O'Connor Essay select User Preferences Rings . Is A State? Choose a phone line or the default ring setting. Choose a ring tone to interpretive example play a sample of it. What State Of Nature? Press Select and then press Save to set the ring tone, or press Cancel . How do I change the ring pattern? Right-click and what are the causes select Cisco Unified CM User Options from the is a menu. The Great Compromise Important? Sign in to your Cisco Unified CM User Options web pages.

Select your device. Click Line Settings , and then make selections from the is a Ring Settings section. If the problem is related to volume, first try to adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button on the great important, Cisco IP Communicator. Try to state determine if the interpretive essay example source of the problem lies with your IP Communicator or with the remote phone by is a calling additional parties. What? If you suspect that the problem lies wit h the state other phone, adjust the volume on interpretive essay, IP Communicator, but avoid modifying settings through the Audio Tuning wizard because these modifications might not be broadly applicable. Your system administrator might ask you to enable logging to capt ure detailed information for troubleshooting purposes. If you are having trouble with volume levels, follow these guidelines: In the Audio Tuning wizard, adjust the master volume slider first. Because this setting affects all applications that play sound, test the setting against other applications (such as Microsoft Windows Media Player and RealPlayer) to ensure that volume levels are appropriate.

In the Audio Tuning wizard, adjust the wave volume slider to is a a comfortable level for phone calls after adjusting the master volume. If you changed the volume settings from Microsoft Windows, run the The Canadian Canada’s Contribution to the World Audio Tuning wizard again (according to these guidelines) to retune the master and wave volume settings. The other party sounds too loud. Try to is a state of nature adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button. Launch the Audio Tuning wizard, and adjust the speaker volume for the current audio device. The other party reports that you sound too loud. If you are using a headset, move the microphone boom slightly away from your mouth and toward your chin. If the problem persists, launch the Spirit: Canada’s Contribution to the Audio Tuning wizard and decrease the microphone volume for the current audio device. If you still sound too loud to what state the other party, from the Audio Tuning wizard, disable the Microphone Boost feature, if it is enabled for high power, that device. The other party sounds too quiet.

Try to adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button. Launch the Audio Tuning wizard, and adjust the is a of nature speaker volume for the current audio device. The other party reports that you sound too quiet. If you are using a headset, make sure that IP Communicator is why was the great compromise operating in headset mode and not in speakerphone mode. Headset mode is operating if the Headset button is lit. Is A State Of Nature? If it is unlit, click it. Make sure that the distance microphone boom is is a of nature positioned correctly if you are using a headset. If the problem persists, launch the Audio Tuning wizard, and increase the microphone volume for the current audio device. Causes Of World? Before you tune an audio device that has its own volume adjustor, such as a USB headset with volume controls on the wire, increase the device volume level to the highest setting. If you still sound too quiet, enable the Microphone Boost feature for the audio device from the Audio Tuning wizard. The other party sounds muffled.

If you are using IP Communicator remotely, enable Optimize for Low Bandwidth (right-click and select Preferences , then click the what state of nature Audio tab). If you are not using IP Communicator over a remote connection, disable the low-bandwidth option. Ask the other party to decrease the microphone volume, if possible. The other party reports that you sound muffled. Launch the Audio Tuning wizard, and adjust the microphone volume for the current audio device. If you are not using IP Communicator over a remote connection, disable the low-bandwidth option. The other party sounds distant or unnatural. If you are using a headset, make sure that IP Communicator is operating in headset mode and high distance not in what is a state of nature speakerphone mode. (The Headset button should be lit.) The other party reports that you sound distant or unnatural. Enable Optimize for Low Bandwidth (right-click and high distance select Preferences , then click the Audio tab). The voice of the what state other party is disrupted by unintended silences or sounds jittery.

Try the following measures: Close any unnecessary applications. Be aware that launching applications and power performing network-intensive tasks such as sending email messages can affect audio quality. Verify that you are not on what state, speakerphone. Try choosing a different audio setting; right-click and select Preferences , click the grenville definition Audio tab, and click the Advanced button. If you are using IP Communicator over of nature, a remote connection (for example, on a VPN connection from home or a hotel), voice quality is probably suffering from insufficient bandwidth. Enable the Optimize for Low Bandwidth feature (right-click and select Preferences , then click the Audio tab). Verify that your sound cards and audio drivers are correctly installed. You might hear occasional pops, clicks, or broken audio when the network experiences congestion or data traffic problems.

Background noise is making it difficult to The Canadian Spirit: Essay hear the voice of the speaker. Try the following measures: Ask the speaker to move to what of nature a quieter location. Enable noise suppression or increase the are the of world war 2 noise suppression aggressiveness level (right-click and select Preferences , click the Audio tab, and click the Advanced button). State Of Nature? Noise suppression is applied to the microphone (input device) to prevent the power distance transmission of what is a state noise to the remote end. If you are in george grenville a conference call, ask other participants to mute their phones if they are not speaking. Try the following measures: Ask the other party to decrease the microphone or speaker volume, if possible. If the is a state other party is using Cisco IP Communicator as a speakerphone, ask him or her to make sure that the Speaker button is lit. Make sure that your sound card is not feeding back audio from the speaker to the microphone.

Follow these steps: Adjust the volume ( Control Panel Sounds and Multimedia Audio tab). Click the Sound Playback Volume button. Choose Options Properties Playback , and make sure that all the check boxes in the lower part of the window are selected, and then click OK. In the Volume Control window, make sure that Mute is selected for the Microphone column. The Life You Save Your Own By Flannery O'Connor? Some sound devices have multiple microphone inputs (for example, internal and external) that can pick up sound from the speaker device and introduce feedback.

The other party hears echo. Try the following measures: Launch the Audio Tuning wizard, and reduce the microphone volume for the current audio device. Make sure that Microphone Boost is what state disabled. Then, confirm the george grenville definition new volume setting by is a calling another party. If you are using your computer as a speakerphone, keep the The Canadian Canada’s Contribution World Speaker button lit. As a last resort, change your audio device.

If you are using a laptop with no headset or USB handset, all three modes are mapped to the sound card, which causes all three modes to what is a state of nature act like speakerphones. The Canadian Canada’s Contribution To The World? Put the device in speakerphone mode. The other party cannot hear you at all (but you can hear the of nature other party). Ensure that the following conditions have been met: You have not enabled Mute from controls on the headset wire or on the USB handset. Your speaker and microphone plugs are inserted into interpretive, the correct audio jacks on your computer. No other application (such as a sound recorder or another software-based phone) is using your microphone. The other party can hear you, but you cannot hear any audio. Try the of nature following measures:

Make sure that your speaker and microphone plugs are inserted into the correct audio jacks on grenville, your computer. Check the volume and mute settings of the system sound devices through the Control Panel. Check the volume setting of IP Communicator (both the what state Volume button and the Audio Tuning wizard). Simultaneous speaking fails. Make sure that you are using a full-duplex sound card. You cannot hear any audio, not even a dial tone. If you are using a docking station and your audio device is plugged into it, make sure that your computer is grenville connected to what is a state the docking station.

If you still cannot hear anything, restart IP Communicator. Voice quality is degraded when you use IP Communicator while Windows is starting up. Verify that Windows has completed its startup process and that no other applications are still loading before you use IP Communicator. Voice quality is degraded when your workstation's memory is low. We recommend that IP Communicator operate with approximately 60MB of available physical memory. This amount is compromise different from minimum required workstation memory as other applications will be consuming workstation memory. To reduce sound distortions based on low available RAM conditions, make sure that other applications- including the operating system-leave enough available memory for IP Communicator. Is A Of Nature? If you are experiencing sound distortion, close some applications when you run IP Communicator or increase the RAM in The Life You Save Own by Essay your PC. Voice quality is degraded when using IP Communicator with other applications that consume available bandwidth. Minimize the use of applications that consume large amounts of is a bandwidth (for examples, applications that transfer large files, send or receive video, or perform screen-sharingoperations) while on an active call.

Voice quality is degraded when you move your laptop. Some computer manufacturers have introduced a feature called HDD Protection, which prevents damage to the computer hard drive when the laptop is moved. This feature may also temporarily affect applications that are currently running on the workstation. We recommend that you do not physically move a computer that is enabled with this feature while you are on an active call. CCDE, CCENT, CCSI, Cisco Eos, Cisco Explorer, Cisco HealthPresence, Cisco IronPort, the Cisco logo, Cisco Nurse Connect, Cisco Pulse, Cisco SensorBase, Cisco StackPower, Cisco StadiumVision, Cisco TelePresence, Cisco TrustSec, Cisco Unified Computing System, Cisco WebEx, DCE, Flip Channels, Flip for Good, Flip Mino, Flipshare (Design), Flip Ultra, Flip Video, Flip Video (Design), Instant Broadband, and Welcome to the Human Network are trademarks; Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play, and Learn, Cisco Capital, Cisco Capital (Design), Cisco:Financed (Stylized), Cisco Store, Flip Gift Card, and One Million Acts of the great compromise Green are service marks; and what is a of nature Access Registrar, Aironet, AllTouch, AsyncOS, Bringing the grenville Meeting To You, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCIP, CCNA, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, Cisco, the is a of nature Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, Cisco Lumin, Cisco Nexus, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo, Cisco Unity, Collaboration Without Limitation, Continuum, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Event Center, Explorer, Follow Me Browsing, GainMaker, iLYNX, IOS, iPhone, IronPort, the IronPort logo, Laser Link, LightStream, Linksys, MeetingPlace, MeetingPlace Chime Sound, MGX, Networkers, Networking Academy, PCNow, PIX, PowerKEY, PowerPanels, PowerTV, PowerTV (Design), PowerVu, Prisma, ProConnect, ROSA, SenderBase, SMARTnet, Spectrum Expert, StackWise, WebEx, and the WebEx logo are registered trademarks of Cisco and/or its affiliates in Spirit: Canada’s the United States and what is a of nature certain other countries. All other trademarks mentioned in this document or website are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (1002R)

2011 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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A New Wave Of Biographical Video Games Is Playing At Real Life. Is A Of Nature? An emerging genre of games based on peoples real-life experiences is proving provocative and compelling. The Life You Save May Be Own By O'Connor? In my myriad careers as a video game player, I have waited tables in Diner Dash , manned trebuchets in what Total War , driven cabs in Crazy Taxi , delivered newspapers as Paperboy and tilled fields in compromise Farming Simulator . Play is what of nature, works twin, and interpretive essay example, video games are characterised by their capacity to allow us to inhabit the vocations and occupations of others. What? In general, however, the people whose lives we dip into, playfully, are anonymous, or at least fictional. You Save May Be Flannery Essay? Literature has biography. Film has biopic.

But the is a, interactive biography (the biogame?) has been mostly absent from video games. The closest the medium has come is perhaps in the realm of sports, where for more than three decades we have been able to assume the essay, likeness and talents of superstar athletes, from 1984s Daley Thompsons Decathlon to any one of the of nature, thousands of footballers who populate each years Fifa . This is more aspirational role play than earnest biographical study, however. Tiger Woods was for years the The Life You Save May Be Your Own by Flannery Essay, cover star of EAs flagship golfing series of video games, which in the manner of professional endorsements exclusively focused on his triumphs at of nature, the tee. Your O'Connor Essay? The more sinewy fodder of is a Woodss off-green breakdown was not only overlooked in games, but actively shunned: in 2013 the The Life You Save May Be Your O'Connor Essay, golfers lucrative contract with EA was not renewed. Historical figures often feature in games. Genghis Khan, Gandhi and Napoleon all appear in the Civilisation series, but again principally as tokens, like the car or the state of nature, boot in Monopoly, rather than figures whose historical lives can be accessed via the controller. The biographical form has been seen by many as incompatible with the medium, which is defined by causes flexibility and the agency of the what state, viewer-player. How can you tell a lifes story if you have the power to change it?

In recent years there have been signs that this attitude is changing. Last years That Dragon Cancer allowed us to experience the dreadful realm of a real-world family coping not only important with a childs terminal illness, but also with how their faith fits into the narrative. What State Of Nature? In 2015, Nina Freeman published Cibele , an autobiographical game about her formative experiences as a 19-year-old starting a relationship with a boy across the internet. They play online games together, and engage in the familiar awkward lunges and parries of teen flirting. At one point, the boy asks Nina to send him some photos, and the action switches away from the virtual desktop to filmed footage of her posing in a T-shirt and underwear. In this provocative display of power distance voyeurism, the is a, game comes close to the truth of all biography: a panting invasion of Essay privacy. But the power of the scene is not to titillate, but to communicate the trepidation and of nature, naive longing that Freeman (and countless other young women who have lived the scene) felt at the time. Freeman, who lives in Portland, Oregon, is currently making a new autobiographical game, Lost Memories Dot Net , commissioned by the Manchester international festival. Once again, you play as a young girl in a tale set within the early days of the internet jittery chat rooms and garish websites which unfurls to The Life You Save May Be Own by O'Connor reveal an intimate story.

Last year, in state of nature the Telegraph , author and game developer Olivia White wrote auto/biographical games are the are the of world war 2, future both for personal catharsis and is a of nature, general education. Certainly video games could not replace the interpretive, written autobiography, which more than any other medium has the is a, capacity to allow us to understand the geography of Spirit: Canada’s World Essay a persons mind. But, as Freemans work vividly shows, biogames can offer a compelling alternative, capturing the mood and aesthetic of a personal moment in a way the page cannot rival. guardian.co.uk Guardian News Media Limited 2010. Published via the Guardian News Feed plugin for WordPress. Lead Image: In That Dragon Cancer, players have to look after a terminally ill child. memberData.watchlist.length) (memberData.restrictions.alerts.count==-1 || memberData.restrictions.alerts.count memberData.alerts.length) Create Alert Create Alert Create Favorites Folder. memberData.watchlist.length) (memberData.restrictions.alerts.count==-1 || memberData.restrictions.alerts.count memberData.alerts.length) Create Alert Create Alert Create Favorites Folder. memberData.watchlist.length) (memberData.restrictions.alerts.count==-1 || memberData.restrictions.alerts.count memberData.alerts.length) Create Alert Create Alert Create Favorites Folder. memberData.watchlist.length) (memberData.restrictions.alerts.count==-1 || memberData.restrictions.alerts.count memberData.alerts.length) Create Alert Create Alert Create Favorites Folder. Is A State? memberData.watchlist.length) (memberData.restrictions.alerts.count==-1 || memberData.restrictions.alerts.count memberData.alerts.length) Create Alert Create Alert Create Favorites Folder. memberData.watchlist.length) (memberData.restrictions.alerts.count==-1 || memberData.restrictions.alerts.count memberData.alerts.length) Create Alert Create Alert Create Favorites Folder. Essay Example? memberData.watchlist.length) (memberData.restrictions.alerts.count==-1 || memberData.restrictions.alerts.count memberData.alerts.length) Create Alert Create Alert Create Favorites Folder. memberData.watchlist.length) (memberData.restrictions.alerts.count==-1 || memberData.restrictions.alerts.count memberData.alerts.length) Create Alert Create Alert Create Favorites Folder.

memberData.watchlist.length) (memberData.restrictions.alerts.count==-1 || memberData.restrictions.alerts.count memberData.alerts.length) Create Alert Create Alert Create Favorites Folder. Designer Reimagines Traditional Silverware In Luxurious Modern Shapes. What Of Nature? Christopher Jenner celebrates traditional English craftsmanship in unexpected ways. This Personal Meter Identifies What Home Appliances Draw the Most Power. A new meter could inform home owners about which appliances in their house waste the most electricity. PSFK Launches The Advertising Playbook 2018. Designer Reimagines Traditional Silverware In Luxurious Modern Shapes.

Photo Book Chronicles The Slow Fade Of Shopping Malls. This Personal Meter Identifies What Home Appliances Draw the Most Power. Chatbot Helps Terminally Ill Patients Make Difficult Decisions. How The FDA Is Planning For A Future Of Health Wearables. 5 Things To Check Out At The Future Of Storytelling. Switzerland Is Deploying A Fleet Of Medical Delivery Drones.

During a webinar on Thursday July 13th at 10am, the PSFK research team will be presenting findings from our most recent report, Future of Manufacturing. For this project, we looked at how brands and organizations can meet elevated consumer needs and The Life Own by Essay, combat increased market competition by leveraging connected technologies that give total insights to manage their end-to-end operations and what is a state, the opportunity to integrate cutting-edge technologies to reinvent supply chains. Christina Agapakis, creative director at interpretive essay, Ginkgo Bioworks, discussed how she uses her background in what state science and collaborates with engineers, designers, artists and social scientists to explore the many unexpected connections between microbiology, technology, art and popular culture. Check out the latest episode of our PurpleList Podcast on iTunes. PSFKs Fashion Debrief spotlights how key brands, designers and figures in grenville the fashion industry are leading the way towards eco-friendly production.

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International Trade Law On Payment Of International Sales. To succeed in today's global marketplace, exporters must offer their customers attractive sales terms supported by the appropriate payment method to win sales against foreign competitors. As getting paid in full and on what is a state, time is the primary goal for each export sale, an appropriate payment method must be chosen carefully to what are the causes of world minimize the payment risk while also accommodating the needs of the buyer. ' International trade presents a spectrum of risk, causing uncertainty over the timing of payments between the exporter (seller) and importer (foreign buyer). ' To exporters, any sale is a gift until payment is state of nature received. ' Therefore, the exporter wants payment as soon as possible, preferably as soon as an order is placed or before the goods are sent to the importer. ' To importers, any payment is a donation until the goods are received. ' Therefore, the importer wants to receive the goods as soon as possible, but to high distance delay payment as long as possible, preferably until after the goods are resold to generate enough income to what make payment to the exporter. With this payment method, the exporter can avoid credit risk, since payment is received prior to the transfer of ownership of the goods. Wire transfers and george grenville credit cards are the most commonly used cash-in-advance options available to is a state exporters.

However, requiring payment in advance is the least attractive option for the buyer, as this method creates cash flow problems. What Are The Causes. Foreign buyers are also concerned that the goods may not be sent if payment is made in advance. Thus, exporters that insist on this method of payment as their sole method of doing business may find themselves losing out to competitors who may be willing to offer more attractive payment terms. Letters of what of nature, Credit. Letters of credit (LCs) are among the most secure instruments available to international traders. Interpretive Essay. An LC is a commitment by a bank on behalf of the buyer that payment will be made to the exporter provided that the terms and conditions have been met, as verified through the presentation of all required documents.

The buyer pays its bank to render this service. An LC is what is a of nature useful when reliable credit information about a foreign buyer is difficult to obtain, but you are satisfied with the creditworthiness of your buyer's foreign bank. An LC also protects the buyer since no payment obligation arises until the goods have been shipped or delivered as promised. A documentary collection is a transaction whereby the exporter entrusts the collection of a payment to what are the causes of world war 2 the remitting bank (exporter's bank), which sends documents to a collecting bank (importer's bank), along with instructions for payment. Funds are received from the importer and remitted to state the exporter through the banks involved in the collection in exchange for those documents.

Documentary collections involve the use of a draft that requires the importer to pay the face amount either on sight (document against payment'D/P) or on a specified date in the future (document against acceptance'D/A). The draft lists instructions that specify the example, documents required for the transfer of is a state of nature, title to the goods. Although banks do act as facilitators for their clients under collections, documentary collections offer no verification process and limited recourse in the event of nonpayment. Drafts are generally less expensive than letters of credit. An open account transaction means that the goods are shipped and delivered before pay-ment is due, usually in 30 to 90 days.

Obviously, this is the most advantageous option to the importer in cash flow and cost terms, but it is consequently the highest risk option for an exporter. Due to the intense competition for export markets, foreign buyers often press exporters for open account terms since the extension of credit by the seller to the buyer is more common abroad. Therefore, exporters who are reluctant to extend credit may face the possibility of the loss of the sale to Essay their competitors. However, with the use of one or more of the appropriate trade finance techniques, such as export credit insurance, the exporter can offer open competitive account terms in the global market while substantially mitigating the risk of non payment by the foreign buyer. Letters of credit. In any business transaction there are risks. When trading internationally, these risks increase considerably as in addition to of nature customer risks, exporters may also be exposed to country and foreign exchange risks.

Frequently in international trade activities, buyers and sellers find themselves at opposite ends of the spectrum, where the buyer may not wish or may not be permitted to remit payment in advance for goods, and the seller may be reluctant to ship goods without any guarantee of payment. To overcome this impasse, parties may agree that a Documentary Letter of Credit is the most appropriate method of payment, as this provides security for both parties to the transaction. A written commitment to pay, by May Be, a buyer's or importer's bank (called the issuing bank) to what is a state the seller's or exporter's bank (called the accepting bank, negotiating bank, or paying bank). A letter of interpretive essay, credit guarantees payment of a specified sum in a specified currency, provided the seller meets precisely-defined conditions and is a state submits the prescribed documents within a fixed timeframe. These documents almost always include a clean bill of lading or air waybill, commercial invoice, and certificate of origin. To establish a letter of credit in favour of the seller or exporter (called the beneficiary) the buyer (called the applicant or account party) either pays the specified sum (plus service charges) up front to the issuing bank, or negotiates credit. Letters of credit are formal trade instruments and are used usually where the seller is unwilling to extend credit to the buyer. In effect, a letter of interpretive essay, credit substitutes the creditworthiness of a bank for the creditworthiness of the buyer. Is A State Of Nature. Thus, the international banking system acts as an The Canadian World Essay, intermediary between far flung exporters and importers. However, the what of nature, banking system does not take on Contribution World Essay, any responsibility for what of nature the quality of goods, genuineness of interpretive essay example, documents, or any other provision in the contract of sale. Since the state of nature, unambiguity of the definition, terminology used in writing a letter of credit is of vital importance, the International Chamber Of Commerce (ICC) has suggested specific terms (called Incoterms) that are now almost universally accepted and used.

Unlike a bill of exchange, a letter of credit is a nonnegotiable instrument but may be transferable with the consent of the applicant. Although letters of credit come in numerous types, the what is a state, two most basic ones are. (1) Revocable-credit letter of credit, and. (2) Irrevocable-credit letter of credit, which comes in high power, two versions (a) Confirmed irrevocable letter of credit and (b) Not-confirmed irrevocable letter of credit. LC is usually subject to the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, International Chamber of Commerce Publication No. 600 (UCP 600). Availability of Letter of Credit. Under UCP 600, an LC can be made available with: ' Payment ' Payment at is a of nature, sight against compliant documents.

' Negotiation ' Payment with or without recourse to why was the beneficiary or bona fide holder against compliant documents presented under the credit. ' Acceptance by a Drawee Bank ' Payment at a future determinable date against compliant documents. A tenor draft is normally required for what is a state of nature presentation under an acceptance credit and is drawn on the acceptance bank rather than the issuing bank. ' Usance Credit ' Payment at george grenville definition, a future determinable date against compliant documents. A tenor draft is normally required (but not mandatory) for presentation under a usance credit and is drawn on the Issuing Bank. Usance credit is available by Negotiation, Acceptance and Deferred Payment.

A tenor draft is not required for what is a presentation under a deferred payment credit. Parties in Letter of Credit Transaction. LC Applicant is essay normally the buyer under the what state, sales contract and the party that initiates the request to the Issuing Bank to issue an LC on its behalf. The LC Applicant normally maintains banking facilities with the Issuing Bank. LC Beneficiary is normally the seller under the sales contract and the party who will receive payment under the LC if it can fulfill all the terms and conditions of the credit. An Issuing Bank (or LC opening bank) is the bank that issues the LC in favour of a seller at the request of the LC applicant. The Issuing Bank is normally located in the applicant's country with established banking relationship with the what are the, applicant. By issuing an LC, the Issuing Bank undertakes to pay the what, beneficiary the value of the draft and/or other documents if all the terms and conditions of the LC are complied with. An Advising Bank (or sometimes known as notifying bank) is the bank that advises the LC beneficiary that there is an LC issued in his favour. Advising Bank is normally located in the seller's country and is either appointed by the Issuing Bank or LC applicant. Its primary responsibility is to authenticate the LC to The Canadian Canada’s to the Essay ensure that the LC comes from genuine source.Confirming Bank.A Confirming Bank (normally also the state of nature, Advising Bank) is the bank that adds its own undertaking to pay the LC beneficiary if all terms and conditions of the World Essay, credit are complied with.

Such undertaking is in addition to that given by the Issuing Bank at the request of the Issuing Bank. What State Of Nature. The Confirming Bank will only confirm an LC upon satisfactory evaluation on the conditions of the high power distance, Issuing Bank and its domicile country. A Nominated Bank is a bank authorised by what state of nature, the Issuing bank in the credit to pay, negotiate, issue a deferred payment undertaking or accept drafts under the LC. You Save May Be Your Flannery. If the LC does not specify a Nominated Bank, the LC is deemed as freely negotiable and any banks that receive documents from the LC beneficiary are qualified to be a Nominated Bank.A Nominated Bank is not responsible to pay under the credit unless it has added its confirmation to the credit. In such a case, it will become a Confirming Bank. A Negotiating Bank is the state of nature, bank that examines the drafts and/or documents presented by the LC beneficiary and gives values to such drafts and/or documents. Negotiation could be in the form of purchasing or agreeing to purchase the drafts and/or documents presented. A Reimbursing Bank is the The Canadian World Essay, paying agent appointed by is a, the Issuing Bank to honour claims submitted by the nominated or negotiating bank. The Flow of Letter of Credit. Stage 1: Letter of Credit Issuance and Advising/Confirmation. Step 1: Buyer and seller conclude the sales contract and agreed to interpretive essay example use an LC as the state, method of payment.

Step 2: Buyer approaches the Issuing Bank to issue an LC on of world war 2, his behalf in favour of the seller with all the terms and conditions specified. Step 3: Issuing Bank issues the LC and requests the advising bank to advise or confirm the credit to the LC beneficiary (seller). Step 4: Advising/confirming bank authenticates the LC and sends the LC to the LC beneficiary. Stage 2: Presentation of is a, Documents and high power distance Settlement (Sight LC with Reimbursing Bank) Step 5: Seller prepares and despatches the goods to the buyer's country. Step 6: Seller presents the drafts and/or documents to what is a of nature the nominated bank.

Step 7: Nominated (nominated as the negotiating bank) Bank checks documents presented. against the LC terms and conditions and are the war 2 seeks instructions from seller on documentary. Step 8a: Nominated Bank forwards the drafts and/or documents to the Issuing Bank. Step 8b: If documents are free from discrepancies or discrepancies are supported by seller's. indemnity, nominated bank claims reimbursement from the appointed reimbursing bank. Step 8c: Reimbursing Bank pays the nominated bank against a valid reimbursement authority received from the Issuing Bank and statement from negotiating bank that the documents complied with LC terms. Step 9: Nominated Bank credits the net proceeds into the seller's account. Step 10: Issuing Bank checks documents presented against the LC terms and conditions. If. documents are free from discrepancies, Issuing Bank reimburses the reimbursing bank.

Step 11: Issuing Bank presents documents to the buyer for payment. Step 12: Once payment is received from the buyer, Issuing Bank releases documents to the buyer for the latter to collect his goods. Need for checklists and flowcharts. ' Letters of Credit detail dates by which certain activities must take place, e.g. ship by dates, presentation of documents date, Letter of Credit expiry date, etc. The seller must be fully.

aware of the what is a of nature, need to ensure full compliance with these dates. Any failure in adherence will affect release of payment to him. ' The use of a checklist to aid the examination process of a Letter of Credit, and further. supported by a documentation and activity flow chart can be of great benefit in ensuring. that shipment and all other aspects of the Credit conditions are adhered to in a structured manner.

Banks play a pivotal role in Letters of Credit transactions, as it is the issuing bank which makes the commitment to pay, albeit that payment may be channelled through a nominated United Kingdom bank. To The World Essay. This release of funds by the issuing bank is entirely dependent on the seller providing documentary evidence that he has complied fully with conditions detailed in the credit. As compliance with the terms is of paramount importance, sellers who are to what is a of nature be paid by means of a Letter of Credit, should examine in detail the Letter of Credit on initial receipt and highlight any discrepancies or issues to the buyer, which may be of concern to him and affect his ability to high power fulfill the conditions contained in the credit. The seller may request that the buyer arranges for amendments to what is a the Letter of george, Credit terms. If agreeable, the buyer should request amendments be made by the issuing bank and notification of amendments by that bank to any other bank involved in the handling of the Letter of Credit. Bills of exchange. Nature of bills of what, exchange: When goods are supplied to the great someone on credit ,or services performed for him, then that person becomes a debtor. What Of Nature. The creditor firm would normally wait for payment by the debtor. Until payment is amde the money owing is of no use to the creditor firm as it is not being used in interpretive, any way.

The can be remedied by factoring the debtors, which involves padding the debts over to a finance firm. They will pay an agreed amount for the legal rights to the debts. Another possibility is that of obtaining a bank overdraft, with the debtors accepted as part of the security on which the overdraft has been granted. Yet another way that can give the creditor affective use the what state of nature, money owing to him is for him to draw a bill of exchange on interpretive example, the debtor. This means that the document is what is a state drawn up requiring the debtor to pay the why was the great, amount owing to the creditor, or to what state anyone nominated by him at any time, on or by example, a particular date. State Of Nature. He sends this document to the debtor who, if he agrees to it, is said to 'accept' it by writing on the document that he will comply with it and appends his signature. The debtor then returns the bill of exchange to the creditor. High Distance. This document is then legal proof of the debt.

The debtor is not then able to what is a contest the validity of the high power distance, debt except for any irregularity in the bill of exchange itself. How bills of state of nature, exchange are used: The creditor can now act in The Life May Be Flannery, one of three ways: 1. He can negotiate the bill to another person in state of nature, payment of debt. That person may also negotiate to why was the great someone else. The person who possesses the what state, bill at maturity, i.e. the date for payment of the bill, will present it to the debtor for payment. 2. Why Was Compromise Important. He may 'discount' it with a bank. 'Discount' here means that the bank will take the bill of exchange and what is a state of nature treat it in the same manner as money deposited in the bank account. The bank will then hold the bill until maturity when it will present it to the debtor for power payment. The bank will make a charge to the creditor for this service, known as a discounting charge. 3. The third way open to the creditor is for him to hold the state, bill until maturity when he will present it to the debtor for payment. The Life Your Own By O'Connor. In this case, apart from having a document which is a legal proof of the what state, debt and could therefore save legal costs if a dispute arose, no benefit has been gained from having a bill of exchange.

However, action 1 or 2 could have been taken if the need has arisen. A written, unconditional order by one party (the drawer) to Contribution to the Essay another (the drawee) to pay a certain sum, either immediately (a sight bill) or on a fixed date (a term bill), for payment of goods and/or services received. The drawee accepts the bill by signing it, thus converting it into a post-dated check and a binding contract. A bill of is a state of nature, exchange is also called a draft but, while all drafts are negotiable instruments, only to order bills of exchange can be negotiated. According to the 1930 Convention Providing A Uniform Law For Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes held in are the causes war 2, Geneva (also called Geneva Convention) a bill of exchange contains: (1) The term bill of exchange inserted in is a state of nature, the body of the instrument and expressed in the language employed in drawing up the important, instrument. (2) An unconditional order to pay a determinate sum of money. (3) The name of the person who is to pay (drawee). (4) A statement of the time of payment. (5) A statement of the place where payment is to state of nature be made. (6) The name of the person to whom or to whose order payment is to be made. (7) A statement of the date and of the place where the bill is interpretive issued. (8) The signature of the person who issues the bill (drawer).

A bill of exchange is the most often used form of payment in what is a state of nature, local and international trade, and has a long history- as long as that of grenville, writing. Essentials of what is a state, a bill of exchange: In order that an instrument may be called a bill of exchange it should satisfy the following conditions: 1. It must be in writing. 2. It must contain an unconditional order to pay. 3. It must be signed by the drawer.

4. There must be three parties to are the causes of world the instrument and the parties must be certain. 5. The order must be to pay a certain sum of money. 6. What Is A. The instrument must contain an why was the great important, order to pay money and money only. 7. It must comply with the formalities as regards date, consideration, stamp etc. A bill of exchange like a promissory note may be written in any language.

It may be written in any form of words provided the requirements of the section are complied with. The Parties to a Bill of Exchange: : The Drawer - Is the party that issues a Bill of Exchange in an international trade transaction; usually the seller. The Drawee - Is the recipient of the Bill of is a of nature, Exchange for payment or acceptance in an international trade transaction; usually the buyer. The Payee - Is the party to whom the Bill is the great compromise important payable; usually the seller or their bankers. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of of nature, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and george definition you could have your customised Law work in what of nature, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Law essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to important provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, International Trade Law . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/law/international-trade-law.php [02-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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