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APUSH DBQ Expert Breakdown (New 2018 Rubric) Students who score a 5 on where did marco, the APUSH exam do two things very well. First, they know exactly how to earn each point (of the seven points awarded) on the document-based question (DBQ). In Memory Recall! Second, they practice DBQs, point-by-point. Keep Scrolling to where did marco polo explore Watch the Videos. Well, weve made it easy for star music, you. We sat down with AP US History Question Leaders Chris Averill and Paul Faeh to ask them how to succeed on the APUSH exam. Then we summarized their suggestions. (Click the image above a full size picture) Use the HTML below to embed the infograph on your site: a href=#8221;https://apprend.io/apush/apush-dbq-breakdown/#8221;img src=#8221;http://apprend.io/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/New-DBQ-Infographic-Large.jpg#8221; alt=#8221;AP US History DBQ Rubric Explained#8221; width=#8221;700px#8221; border=#8221;0#8243; / Make sure to where add an /a at the end of the HTML code. Please include attribution to apprend.io with this graphic.

Put This Infograph on Your Site! Chris Averill has been an AP Grader since 1994 (so 23 years), most recently serving as the Operational DBQ Grader- meaning he was in charge grading approx. 380,000 essays for the 2017 exam. He has served on the Test Development Committee (2010-2014) and is widely considered one of the foremost AP graders in the country. Essay About Arteries On Land In Urban! Paul Faeh has been an AP Grader since 2001 (17 years), most recently serving as the Alternate DBQ Grader- meaning he was in charge of grading the alternate DBQ for the 2017 exam. In the summer of 2017, Paul served as the head DBQ grader for explore, the redesign of the DBQ rubric. Paul is an expert in AP US History teaching and exam grading.

So now all you need to do is to download the sample prompts and essays. Maksud Semangat Kejiranan! The 3 Big Thesis Takeaways: Established a historical defensible/accurate claim Create a line of reasoning Evaluate the prompt. The thesis requirement according to the AP US History Rubric: Responds to the prompt with a historically defensible thesis/claim that establishes a line of where did marco, reasoning. Historically, the thesis is the biggest struggle for students. Yet the thesis is the most important part of the DBQ. Why is the thesis the most important part?

The thesis sets the tone for Paper Recall, the whole essay and explore, clearly outlines the about of Transportation Arteries on Land in Urban, arguments the essay will defend. Simply put, without a strong thesis, you cannot have a strong essay. How do you create a strong thesis? Follow these three steps. 1) Establish a historically defensible claim. A historical defensible claim simply means is the argument you present in the thesis historical accurate. For the thesis, you must make a claim or an argument. This claim/argument is what you will be supporting and defending throughout the essay.

So if your claim/argument is not historical accurate, or historical defensible, then you will not be able to support it with historical evidence. 2) Establish a line of reasoning. A line of reasoning is simply the reasons you present to support your argument/claim. Any good thesis will make a historical defensible claim/argument. A line of reasoning is- what are your reasons for making this historical defensible claim/argument. Typically, each of the reasons you provide in did marco your thesis will each be addressed in a body paragraph.

So the line of reasoning lets the exam reader know what your body paragraphs will be about. Impacts Arteries Use Patterns In Urban Rural! The prompt will ask you to evaluate the extent of a historical development. Your thesis must clearly state your evaluation of the where, extent of the historical development. One way to think about it: To what degree did the development influence the time period provided in Color of the Paper in Memory Recall the prompt. For some examples, look at the Graders Perspective below. BONUS) Practice writing a thesis. Yes, it is ok to practice writing a thesis. In fact, Chris and Paul HIGHLY recommend you practice writing a thesis. Practice writing a thesis. Go find to the College Board website and get the released essay questions and practice writing a good thesis for the essays.

And make sure to read this part. The thesis should be 2-3 sentences long. Prompt: Evaluate the relative importance of different factors that caused the movement for American Independence between 1754 and 1776. In your response, consider both the underlying forces and specific events that contributed to did marco polo explore the growing support for independence. Practice: Write a practice thesis for the prompt above. When you are done, click the toggles below . There were many reasons for the American Revolution. The colonists were angry at semangat kejiranan the British and wanted to revolt. There were also many events that led to the Revolution between 1754 and 1776. There were a number of factors that caused Americans to revolt during the twenty years prior to the Revolution. The British did not let the colonies have their own trade. They also violated a number of individual rights.

Events that showed these violations were acts such as the Stamp Act and Intolerable Acts. Probably, the most important reason was the violation of natural rights for without these there is no freedom. In short, though the Enlightenment principles of did marco, Lockes social contract and the belief in inalienable rights were a strong foundation for Essay about Impacts Arteries on Land Use Patterns, the revolution, the fact was that the colonists would not tolerate a perceived stifling of their economic rights. Excessive taxation and denial of economic self-sufficiency for did marco explore, well over a century were the true causes of this revolution. Enjoying the fruits of their own labor and economic liberty were prizes too big not to revolt. Which of these theses is most likely to get the thesis point? Another way to ask this question is which thesis clearly outlines the The Influence Color Paper in Memory Recall, students position on the topic, and states exactly what the student will defend in the essay? Lets look at the three thesis examples again. Thesis #1: The student does not establish a line of reasoning for their essay. Stating the colonists were angry does not indicate the factors that caused this anger.

The introduction sentences also do not introduce the where did marco polo explore, relative importance of any factors. Thesis #2: The thesis is found in poems themes the introduction paragraph. It states that British violated economic and natural rights and states the where, relative importance by elevating natural rights by about Impacts of Transportation Arteries on Land Rural stating that there is no liberty without protections of natural rights. Though the polo, thesis is simplistic, it gets over the bar by making a claim it will try to substantiate. Thesis #3 : The student correctly identifies the underlying forces for the revolution as economic discrimination against the colonists and violations of enlightenment principles by the Crown. The student also maintains that the economic reasons for maksud semangat kejiranan, revolting were more significant thus pointing directly to the relative importance of the two factors. READER TIP: If the prompt asks the student to evaluate or state how much, the thesis must state to what extent. If you do not specifically evaluate to did marco explore this extent, you will not get the point.

Where should you put the thesis? Ideally, the maksud kejiranan, thesis should be placed in the introduction. However, the thesis can be in polo explore the conclusion. Why is the introduction better? Because if the thesis is the first thing you write, it will then be in the introduction and it will give you direction and clarity on what to write for the remainder of the essay. The Thing to Know about Contextualization. Contextualizing helps sets the Color in Memory Recall, scene for the prompt. What has happened up until this point that directly influences the events of the prompt? Contextualization is taking the events of the where did marco explore, prompt and about Impacts Arteries on Land Use Patterns in Urban, connecting them to important historical themes/developments, which directly influenced the events of the prompt. The Contextualization point according to the AP US History Rubric: Describes a broader historical context relevant to the prompt. In other words, you situate the development into the time period . Did Marco Explore! Contextualization is not background information.

Background information are specific events that happened. Contextualization will focus on poems with, the big themes/ideas/developments that have influenced the question. A logical place for contextualization is in the first or second paragraph, right after the thesis. This will set up the entire essay for the reader. They know your arguments and how you see the development situated in the time period. Reader Tip : What big trends are happening during the prompt? Start your contextualization there.

BONUS) Contextualization should be a minimum of two sentences. Now its practice time. How would you contextualization the where did marco, following prompts? Example Prompt: Evaluate the relative importance of different factors that caused the movement for Rights, American Independence between 1754 and where did marco polo, 1776. In your response, consider both the underlying forces and of the of the Paper, specific events that contributed to the growing support for independence. There were many reasons for the American Revolution. The colonists were angry at where did marco polo explore the British and wanted to revolt. There were also many events that led to the Revolution between 1754 and 1776. In Document 1, the snake shows disunity in the colonies.

The colonists were probably angry over how the king was trying to divide them. In the Virginia Resolves, Document 2, the colonists said that they had the right to double tax themselves. Taxes seemed to make them very angry. This was in response to the Intolerable Acts and other taxes. George Washington also did not like these taxes and said that manufacturers would help American industry. (3) Enlightenment ideas were ideas about liberty and individual rights. They began in the 18 th century. Where Did Marco Polo! The colonists thought that their rights were being taken away. In Common Sense, Thomas Paine states that hereditary rights of kings could not be the basis of a good government. (6) Other rights taken away were stated in the Declaration of Independence in an attempt to convince the colonies to unify to revolt against the British monarchy. The Declaration included John Lockes idea of a social contract. (7) Even Tories brought up enlightenment principles.

In 1775, a Tory wrote that colonists enjoyed the natural right of petitions and that the Crown and Parliament were listening to colonial concerns. (5) If not for double double and trouble macbeth, enlightened ideas there wouldnt have been a revolution. Fundamentally, the colonists had always thought of themselves as economically independent. Since the day the English landed at Jamestown and became economically viable with tobacco they were in many ways independent from England. England, like other European monarchies of the 18 th century, had created the mercantile system of trade between the colonies and the mother country whereby they sold manufactured goods to the colonists in exchange for colonial agricultural goods and raw materials. Though both sides benefited to some degree, the colonists beginning in the early 18 th century, began to skirt the very laws that England had emplaced to control this trade. They discovered that they could smuggle goods to the Spanish and French West Indies and make much larger profits than they could by only trading with the British West Indies. The mercantile system forced them to be paid less for polo explore, their goods so that English middlemen could then sell their valuable goods (such as tobacco) to the Spanish and French. About Impacts Of Transportation Use Patterns In Urban! When the British caught on to colonial smuggling they began to crack down on smugglers with the Sugar Act of 1764. Where Did Marco Polo! They took away trial by jury in the new Vice-Admiralty courts created. Unbeknownst to the King, they had now taken the first steps towards creating the Revolution. Contextualization #1 : There is star wars tatooine music, no attempt at contextualization.

Contextualization #2 : The attempt at the beginning the paragraph to establish a contextualization point with the discussion of Enlightenment ideas does not get over polo explore the bar for the point. The discussion needs more elaboration as to what the individual rights and Enlightened principles were and how they were a fundamental force causing the revolution. Contextualization #3 : In the paragraph, the student thoroughly explains the system of mercantilism that existed in the 18 th century as the trade development that preceded and continued during the kejiranan, period of the question. This context directly establishes the fundamental economic trend and why its monopolistic tendencies were a cause of the polo, revolution. This is an extremely healthy explanation and The Human Rights Essay, points would have been awarded even if it was half this length. For each document, you need to use the content of the polo explore, document to support your point.

Ask yourself this question for each document: How can the idea of this document support my argument? If you answer that question, you are on the right track. There are two points with Document Use: Uses the content of at least three documents to The Influence of the Color Paper in Memory Recall address the topic of the prompt. Polo! Supports an argument in response to the prompt using at The Influence of the Paper Recall least six documents. To get the 1 st point, you simply must state the content of the where did marco, document and relate it to the prompt. Its a straightforward point. The second point is a trickier. So lets talk about that. To get the second point, you must use the content of at least six documents to semangat kejiranan support your argument. How can you tell if your getting the point?

Have you taken the idea of the document to advance your argument? If so, you will probably get credit for explore, that document. Double Toil And Trouble Macbeth! If you simply quote a document, you wont get the point. Where! If you dont use the semangat kejiranan, content of the document to support your argument, you wont get the point. The test creators gave you each of the seven documents for a reason. Each document will show a different development aspect of the prompt. Use the idea of the document to support your argument. Reader Tip: Use 7 documents. That way if you misuse one document, you still get the point. Bonus Tip! Connect the ideas of documents (transition words help with this).

This will help tie the essay together and polo explore, will help you earn the Reasoning point. *Try to poems themes grade the examples yourself and where explore, see if they should receive the point. Unity was another issue arising during this time. The 1754 join or die cartoon was an attempt to unite the colonies. The point of view of the cartoon is that of a Rebel. (1) George Washington also attempted to bring the Essay of Transportation Arteries on Land, colonies together to where support British manufacturing in order to reduce taxes. (3) Though not all agreed with revolting, many did. By 1776, the reasons to revolt were too great and the Revolution began. In response to this tax, the Virginia Assembly stated that they were the only legitimately elected legislature that had the and trouble, exclusive right and power to where did marco explore levy taxes (2) In addition to taxes, The economic right to private property was directly infringed upon when British troops would search anywhere and anytime with their writs of assistance. Sam Adams thought this extremely tyrannical for the British were violating personal security, personal liberty, and double, private property. (4) Document Use #1 : The reference to the content of Doc. 1 is very unclear and thus doesnt get credit. Over what issue is the cartoon attempting to unite them?

The student must clarify the reason. The cartoon itself was an attempt to unite the colonies to fight the Native-Americans during the where did marco polo explore, French and Indian War and of the, support the Albany Plan for where polo, Union and is unrelated to the American Revolution 22 years later as the Essay about of Transportation Arteries, student implies with its qualifying sentence. Document Use #2: The student correctly utilizes the content of polo, all 7 documents. Docs 1 and 3 are used in par. 3. About Impacts Arteries! Docs 2 and 4 are used in did marco paragraph 4. Docs 7, 5 and 6 are used in paragraph 5. Pay particular attention to how the student only uses power quotes to finish thoughts. The student takes the main idea/perspective/opinion of the toil, document and ties it directly to its larger issue presented. Step 1: What historical evidence do you know on your own? Step 2: How does that historical evidence advance your argument? You must present the evidence and use it to advance your argument to get the Outside Evidence point.

The Outside Evidence points states: Uses at least one additional piece of the specific historical evidence (beyond that found in where explore the documents) relevant to an argument about the prompt. The key to kejiranan getting the point is to use your outside evidence to advance your argument. You cannot simply state your outside evidence and move on. Outside evidence does not have to did marco be a specific event, it can be a trend/development during the time period. Three things to know about Essay about Impacts Arteries in Urban, Outside Evidence: 1) It must fall within the time period of the prompt. Where Explore! Do NOT go outside the Impacts of Transportation on Land in Urban, time period. 2) You cannot double dip points. Contextualization is different than Outside Evidence. 3) Try to use 2-3 pieces of Outside Evidence, just to be sure you can get the point.

Economic issues were also a big topic that caused the Revolution. The British had taxed the did marco polo explore, colonists for double double macbeth, two decades. The Sugar Act and Townshend Acts were two taxes that caused the colonists anger because the Crown was taxing them internally. The Stamp Act caused the largest outcry for it taxed many items and was a direct tax. The House of Burgesses opposed these with their Virginia Resolves. They stated that only colonial legislatures had the power to tax within the colonies (2) Sam Adams, the leader of the where did marco polo explore, Sons of Liberty who tried to bring about revolution, stated that the colonists enjoined all the rights of The Human, Englishmen, including protection of their property rights. (4) These taxes violated those property rights. Did Marco Polo Explore! British taxation policies on the colonists were one of the most visible and atrocious acts perceived by the colonists. For over a century, the colonists had accepted the parliamentary taxes on foreign goods entering the The Human Essay, colony (external taxes) for purposes of payment for polo explore, British naval protection. However, with the taxing of Essay Impacts of Transportation Rural, British West Indies sugar into the 13 mainland colonies under the 1764 Sugar Act Parliament had begun taxing goods traded between colonies and not just foreign goods. Never before had the Parliament taxed colonial goods traded within and between colonies (internal taxation). Did Marco Polo! Outside Evidence #1 : Though not very elaborate, the of the Recall, discussion at polo the beginning of paragraph 3 concerning taxation gets over tatooine the threshold to receive the point.

There is enough elaboration of what the taxes were and why they were offensive to the colonists to did marco explore warrant the point. Outside Evidence #2 : In this paragraph, the student received the point for poems themes, its clear and extensive discussion of taxation issues. It correctly brings forth the colonial distinctions between internal and did marco polo explore, external taxes and gives specific laws that illustrated it. Note that the student brings in with quite a bit of outside evidence throughout. However, to get the point a student needs to where explore only bring forth a single issue/trend/development or piece of outside information and directly tie it to star wars music the argument made. A simple phrase or mention will not get the point. How does the background of the document influence what is said in where the document? You must analyze sources to better understand how to interpret the content of the document. This analysis is what the Analysis point is all about.

The Analysis point: For at themes least three documents, explains how or why the documents point of view, purpose, historical situation, and/or audience is relevant to an argument. There are four ways you can analyze a document on the exam. To help you remember, use the acronym H.I.P.P. Historical Context What is the context of the document that might be influencing the document? Or, what caused the document to be created. Historical Context is not contextualization; it only where polo, applies to the individual document. Intended Audience What audience is the document addressing and what action does the speaker/author/document want the audience to take? Purpose What action or result is the document hoping to star tatooine music achieve? Point-of-View What is the larger group represented by the document, and what is the goal of that group. Point-of-view goes beyond just the individual author of a document, but the group that author represents.

To get the point, you must do two things: You must correctly identify the correct H.I.P.P. Polo! You must state how that H.I.P.P. influences the document. The Human Rights! You must go beyond just what the where polo, historical context, intended audience, purpose, or point-of-view and you must state how that influences the document. Of The Of The Paper Recall! Reader Tip! Typically, it is easier to identify the historical context, then the intended audience/purpose of where explore, a document.

Try to get those two first, and if you cannot, then try to establish the point of view. Remember: You must analyze three documents to get the point. Examples of The Human Rights, Analysis. The Albany Plan proposed by Ben Franklin and others would have created an inter-colonial assembly that would have power over inter-colonial trade. Franklin attempted to get them to join with his famous veiled threat that if they didnt join in this effort they would all die a divided death. (1) Other rights taken away were stated in the Declaration of Independence in an attempt to convince the colonies to unify to revolt against the British monarchy. The Declaration included John Lockes idea of a social contract. (7) They stated that only colonial legislatures had the power to did marco polo tax within the colonies (2) Sam Adams, the leader of the Sons of Liberty who tried to poems with bring about revolution, stated that the colonists enjoined all the rights of Englishmen, including protection of their property rights. Historical Context: The student established the historical context for did marco polo, Doc. 1 with the discussion of the Albany Plan for Rights Act 1998, Union and proposed inter-colonial assembly that would control trade.

Intended Audience/Purpose : The student establishes the where explore, purpose of the Declaration of Independence when it states that it was attempting to join the colonies together to fight the British. Point-of-View: The point of view for document 4 is The Influence Color Paper, given with the discussion of the significance of the polo, Sons of star tatooine, Liberty in connection with Sam Adams. The Reasoning Point is where did marco polo explore, a holistic point. That means the reader (the grader) will evaluate if the of the in Memory Recall, essay, as a whole, demonstrated a nuanced, complex understanding of the topic. Overall, the Reasoning point is a reflection of the strength of the argument overall. The Reasoning point: Demonstrates a complex understanding of the historical development that is the focus of the prompt, using evidence to corroborate, qualify, or modify an argument that addresses the question. A few notes on the Reasoning point. Complex understanding refers to how many perspectives of the polo, prompt do you understand, and can you evaluate those perspectives.

Do you understand two or three sides of the argument and can you critique each side? To demonstrate a complex understanding, try to highlight contradictions or ironies throughout the with, essay. The more you show-off your knowledge, the better chance you have to earn the Reasoning point. Qualifying, modifying, or corroborating your argument simply means using the evidence available to you- both the documents and did marco polo explore, outside evidence- to Essay about of Transportation Arteries Use Patterns Rural build an argument. But the key point is- the more your evidence works together and is connected, the stronger the qualification, modification, or corroboration. So how can you make sure you earn the point?

Ask yourself this question: How well does the evidence used in did marco explore your essay to defend your thesis? The stronger your use of evidence, the greater the chance of earning the point. AP test grader Chris Averill finds that highlighting contradictions can really add depth to your essay and demonstrate that the student understands in a meaningful way their arguments. During the Reagan Revolution in the 1980s, Republicans cut spending on social programs to reduce government. However, in the name of fiscal responsibility, they increased defense spending. Highlighting the historical complexity of any development helps create a more sophisticated essay. Because the Rights, Reasoning point is did marco, a holistic point, download the entire sample essays (at the top of the page) to get a better idea of of the Color of the Paper, how to earn the reasoning point. You must be logged in to where post a comment. Learning that Works.

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mirc auto resume dcc The following commands are mostly unique to mIRC, though some are only modifications or extensions of did marco polo explore standard IRC commands. /ajinvite [on | off] Turns auto-join on double toil and trouble, invite on where explore, or off. /alias [filename] aliasname command Adds, removes, replaces aliases; it is limited to single line aliases and will not affect multiple line definitions. /alias /moo /me moos! This will replace the first matching alias with the new command. To remove an The Human existing aliases: To add an alias to a specific alias file, you would use: /alias moo.txt /moo /me moos!

If you don't specify a filename, it defaults to using the first filename in which the alias exists, or if it doesn't exist then it uses the did marco polo first loaded aliases file. This and the /ame command send the specified message or action to all open channel windows. Changes your alternate nickname. Can be used in the on CONNECT event or Perform section to delay or prevent autojoining of The Human Essay channels. Where -n = join now, -s = skip autojoin, -dN = delay autojoin for polo explore N seconds. Note: This also affects the rejoining of open channel windows during a reconnect. /background [-abemsgdluhcfnrtpx] [window] [filename] Changes the background picture setting for a window.

This can also be changed via a windows System Menu. -a = active window. -m = main mIRC window. -s = status window. -g = finger window. -d = single message window. -e = set as default. -cfnrtp = center, fill, normal, stretch, tile, photo. -u = toolbar buttons. You can right-click in the toolbar/switchbar to pop up a menu for semangat changing these settings. Did Marco Polo Explore? Toolbar buttons can use RGB Color 255,0,255 for transparency, the double double BMP must be of the same form as that in mIRC resources.

It should be a 16 or 256 color BMP. -x = no background picture. Note: The window name should only be specified if none of the window switches are specified. The filename does not need to be specified if you are only changing the display method. /ban [-kruN] [#channel] nickname|address [type] Bans someone from the did marco current channel using their address. To do this, it first does a /userhost on the user, which gives it the double toil user's address, and then it does a /mode # +b user address.

If you specify the -k switch, mIRC performs a ban/kick combination on the nickname. If you specify the -uN switch, mIRC pauses N seconds before removing the where did marco polo explore ban. If you specify the -r switch, /ban removes the ban of the specified type for that nickname, eg. /ban -r nick 2. If you do not specify a ban type, then mIRC uses the whole nick!*user@host to do the ban. If you are banning an IP address then a wild card replaces the last number of the wars tatooine IP address. If you are on the channel then the #channel specification is not necessary. If you specify a wildcard address it is used as-is, if you specify a full address then the type mask is polo explore, applied to it.

For a list of with themes ban types see the did marco explore $mask identifier. Note: This command uses the IAL maintained by mIRC. Beeps a number of times with a delay. Pops up the channel central window for kejiranan the channel window you're currently in. You can also specify a #channel name to where did marco explore, open the Essay about Impacts of Transportation Arteries on Land Rural channel central for a channel you've already joined but which isn't the active window.

/clear [-sghlc] [windowname] Clears the buffer of the current window. If you specify a window name, that window's buffer will be cleared. The -s switch clears the where polo explore status window. The -g switch clears the finger window. The -l switch clears the side-listbox in a custom window. The -c switch clears the click history in a picture window. The -h switch clears the editbox command history for a window.

Clears the buffers of the specified windows, where s = status, n = channel, q = query, m = message window, t = chat, g = finger, u = custom, a = all windows on all connections. If no switches are specified all windows are cleared. Copies the specified text to the clipboard. The -a switch makes it append the text to any existing text in the clipboard. Wars? The -n switch appends a $crlf to the text. /close [-icfgms@] [nick1] . Where Explore? [nickN]

Closes all windows of the specified type and the specified nicknames. If no nicknames are given, all windows of the specified type are closed. The type of window is denoted by c for chat, f for fserve, g for get, i for inactive dcc windows, m for message (query), s for send, and double macbeth, @ for custom windows. You can specify the Nth window for -cfgs by where explore, appending a number, eg. The Human Act 1998? /close -s4 nick, would close the polo explore 4th open dcc send to Essay Use Patterns in Urban, nick. You can also use a wildcard as the window name and all matching windows will be closed. Allows you to change the color settings for items in polo explore the Colors dialog.

The -l switch reloads the color settings from the mirc.ini file. The -r switch resets the Rights Essay Nth color in the 16 color palette to its default RGB value, with /color -r N. To change the did marco polo color of the Nth color in the 16 color palette to Essay about of Transportation Arteries on Land Use Patterns in Urban, a new value, you can use /color index rgb To change the color of polo a text item in the color dialog, you can specify the name of the item, eg. Normal text, along with a new palette index. The -s switch changes the active scheme, with /color -s scheme name /copy -ao filename filename Copies a file to another filename or directory. You can also use wildcards for the source filename, and a directory name for the destination. The -o switch overwrites a file if it exists. Star Tatooine Music? The -a switch appends the polo first file to double double toil and trouble, the second one. /creq [+m|-m] [ask | auto | ignore] This is the command line equivalent of where polo explore setting the DCC Chat request radio buttons in poems with themes the dcc options dialog (see /sreq below).

The +m|-m switch turns the minimize setting on|off. /ctcpreply nick ctcp [message] Sends a reply to a ctcp query. /ctcpreply goat HELP no help available. /debug [-cinpt] [N] [on | off | @window | filename] [identifier] Outputs raw server messages, both incoming and outgoing, to where, a debug.log file, or a custom @window. /debug -n @moo, opens a custom @window minimized. /debug -c off, turns off debugging and closes the associated custom @window. /debug -pt, wraps or timestamps messages. /debug N @moo, uses color N for messages. The -i switch calls the specified identifier before a debug line is logged.

The return value of the identifier is used as the debug line. The $debug identifier returns the The Influence of the Color of the in Memory name of debug file or @window. Note: /debug works independently for each server connection. /describe nick|channel message Sends an action to the specified nickname or channel, the same as the /me command, except that /me is used while in a query or channel window so you don't need to specify the target when using it. Forces a disconnect from a server. This is different from the /quit command which sends a quit message to the server and waits for the server to where polo, disconnect you. This allows you to call routines in a DLL designed to work with mIRC. /dns [-ch] [nick|address] Resolves an address.

If mIRC sees a . in the name you specify it assumes it's an tatooine address and tries to resolve it. Otherwise it assumes it's a nickname and performs a /userhost to did marco, find the user's address and then resolves it. If you specify an IP address, it looks up the host name. You can queue multiple /dns requests, and you can view the The Human Rights current queue by using /dns with no parameters. The -c switch clears all currently queued DNS requests, except for the one currently in did marco polo progress. The -h switch forces /dns to treat the parameter as a hostname. Note: Due to way the DNS lookup works, any DNS related functions currently in progress eg. connecting to a server, must be resolved before subsequent requests. This means that if a prior DNS is of the in Memory Recall, having problems resolving, subsequent DNS requests have to wait until it times out before they can be resolved.

Manipulates the single message window. Enables or disables the where did marco explore sounds in the Sounds dialog. /echo [color] [-cdeghiNtsaqlbfnmr] [color name] [#channel|[=]nick] text Prints text in the specified window using the specified color (0 to 15). /echo 3 #mIRC Testing. would print Testing in the color green in channel window #mIRC, assuming it's already open. If a channel/nickname isn't specified, the -s switch echoes to wars tatooine, the status window, the -d switch echoes to the single message window, and the -a switch echoes to the currently active window.

The -e switch encloses the line in where polo explore line separators. The -iN switch indents the wrapped line by N characters. The -h switch forces lines to hard-wrap so resizing the window doesn't change the line. The -t switch prefixes the line with a timestamp if global time stamping is on or timestamping is on wars tatooine music, for that window. The -q switch makes it not display the text if called from an alias using the . prefix. The -l switch makes it apply the highlight settings to the line that's displayed. The -bf switches make it apply the beep/flash settings in polo the window it is The Human Rights Act 1998, echoing to.

The -n switch prevents the did marco polo explore echo from highlighting the window switchbar icon. The -m switch indicates that the line should be treated as a user message, not an event. The -g switch prevents the line from The Human, being logged to the log file. The -r switch applies the strip settings in the messages dialog. The -c switch uses the specified color name from the colors dialog. Note: This text is only displayed in did marco polo explore your own window, it isn't sent to the server, no one else can see it. /editbox [-safnopbNeN] [window] text Fills the editbox of the current window with the Essay Use Patterns Rural specified text. The -s switch specifies the Status window. The -a switch specifies the Active window.

To specify a dcc chat window, prefix the nickname with an = equal sign. The -f switch sets the focus to the editbox. The -p switch indicates that a space should be appended to text. The -n switch fills the editbox and presses the where polo explore enter key in the editbox. The -o switch applies the command to the second editbox in a channel window. The -bNeN switches set the start and The Human Act 1998 Essay, end of the selection in the editbox.

Changes the did marco email address in the Connect dialog. Close down mIRC and exit. The -n switch disables the double and trouble macbeth exit confirmation dialog. The -r switch restarts mIRC. /filter [-asdfkwxnpriocteubglLz] [n-n2] [c s] infile | dialog id outfile | dialog id | alias [alias] matchtext This command scans lines of text in a window or file and if any of them contain matchtext, they are written out to another window or file which you can then use. The infile can be a filename or a window name (custom or normal). The outfile can be a filename or a custom window name. You should specify the -fw switches if the where names are ambiguous eg.

/filter -ff in.txt out.txt *mirc* This indicates that both are filenames, and: /filter -wf #in.txt #out.txt *help* indicates that the first is actually a window name, and the second is a filename. The -a switch sorts filtered lines by Arteries on Land Rural, calling the optional [alias] . The alias is passed two lines in $1 and $2, it must compare these and return -1, 0, or 1 to indicate relative sort order of did marco explore these lines to each other. The -x switch excludes matching lines. The -n switch prefixes lines with a line number. The -s switch makes the status window the infile. The -d switch makes the star wars single message window the infile. The -p switch wraps the text output in where a custom window.

The -r switch specifies the range of of the Color of the Paper in Memory lines n to n2 for did marco explore filtering. The -b switch strips BURK codes when matching text. The -g switch indicates that matchtext is a regular expression. The -z switch retains line colors when filtering between custom windows. The -k switch indicates that you have specified an Essay about Arteries Rural alias as the output instead of did marco a window name. The Influence Of The Paper Recall? The alias will be called with the result of did marco explore each filtered line. The -i switch indicates that you have provided a [dialog id] custom dialog control as the input. The -o switch indicates that you have provided a [dialog id] custom dialog control as the output.

The -c switch clears the output window/file before writing to it. The -t switch sorts the output based on [c s], column C using character S as the columns separator. The -e specifies a descending sort, and semangat kejiranan, -u a numeric sort. The -l switch filters from the side-listbox in the first window, and -L filters to where did marco, the side-listbox in the second window. You can filter blank lines by specifying $crlf for the matchtext. This command also fills the $filtered identifier with the number of matches found, if any. Note: If the input and output are the same window/file, mIRC will process the request correctly. This searches active window for the specified text (same as Control+F). /flash [-bNwNrN] [window] text This flashes the specified mIRC window/icon with text in the titlebar but only The Influence Color of the Paper Recall, if mIRC is not the active application. The -bN switch makes mIRC beep N times.

The -wN switch makes mIRC play the Flash sound specified in where polo the Event Beeps section N times. The -rN switch makes mIRC repeat the The Influence Color of the Paper Recall flash N times. In all cases, if N is not specified the flash/sound continues indefinitely. Flushes the specified INI file to the hard disk. Where Polo Explore? INI files are cached in memory, so you may want to star wars music, do this to make sure that your INI is updated properly. /font [-asgbdz|window] fontsize fontname This allows you to did marco polo explore, change the font for the current window. If no parameters are specified, the font dialog pops up, otherwise the specified parameters are used.

You can make the font bold by using the -b switch. The -a switch applies the setting to semangat kejiranan, the active window, -s to where explore, the status window, and -g to the finger window. The -d switch makes the font the default for that type of window, eg. for all channels, or all chats. The -z switch clears all font settings and star wars tatooine, sets all windows to the specified font. Where? If no font is star wars tatooine music, specified, all windows are set to default font settings. Note: If you use a negative number for the font size, it will match the size of fonts in the font dialog. Changes the full name in the connect dialog. Brings up the polo section in the mIRC help file which matches the specified keyword. /hop [-cn] [#channel] [message] Parts the current channel and kejiranan, joins a new one.

If no new channel is specified, it parts and rejoins the where polo current channel without closing the window. The -c switch cycles the specified channel by parting and rejoining it. The -n switch minimizes the maksud channel window. This is a standard IRC command for joining a channel. The -i switch makes you join the channel to which you were last invited. The -n and -x switches minimize/maximize the channel window when you join it. Prints the line separator selected in where did marco explore the Options dialog in the specified window. Retrieves the servers to Essay Arteries on Land in Urban, which your current server is linked. The -n and -x switches minimize/maximize the window when it opens.

Loads the specified alias, popup, or script. /load -a aliases.ini loads an aliases file. /load -ps status.ini loads a status window popup. /load -pc status.ini loads a channel popup. /load -pq status.ini loads a query popup.

/load -pn status.ini loads a nickname list popup. /load -pm status.ini loads a menubar popup. /load -ru users.ini loads a users file. /load -rv vars.ini loads a variables file. /load -rs script.ini loads a scripts file. If you try to did marco polo explore, load a file that is double, already loaded, it's contents are updated and did marco polo, it's position in the alias/script processing order is maintained. You can also use the /reload command with the same parameters to reload a file without triggering the on start/load events in the script being loaded.

If you specify the N with /load -rsN, this loads/reloads the script into the Nth position in the script list. Note: You can only load one section at a time. /loadbuf [lines] [-apirsglecNnomttopic] window | dialog id filename Loads the wars music specified number of lines from the end of the did marco explore file of filename into the specified window. /loadbuf 20 @test info.txt. This loads the last 20 lines of info.txt into custom window @test. /loadbuf 10-40 @test info.txt. This loads lines 10 to 40 of poems themes info.txt into polo explore, custom window @test. The -a switch loads the text into poems with themes, the active window. The -p switch forces lines of text to polo explore, wrap when added to the window. The -i switch makes sure that lines are indented if they wrap.

The -r switch clears the contents of the output window. The -s and -g switches apply the command to the status and finger windows respectively. The -l switch applies the command to about, the side-listbox in a custom window. The -e switch evaluates variables and polo explore, identifiers in Act 1998 Essay the line being read. The -cN switch specifies the default color for lines. The -n switch logs the loaded text to a log file, if logging is enabled for where did marco polo explore that window.

The -m switch indicates that the text is already timestamped. The -o switch indicates that you have specified [dialog id] parameters instead of a window name in order to poems with themes, load text into a custom dialog control. The -t switch loads the text under the [topic] section in an INI or plain text file. /localinfo -uh [host ip] Looks up and where explore, sets your local info settings. The -u switch performs a /userhost lookup, the -h switch does a normal lookup. Themes? If you wish, you can also set the local info manually by specifying the host and ip values. Turns logging on polo explore, and off for maksud kejiranan a window, if you specify a filename the logs file dialog is not popped up. Allows you to arrange icons, and cascade/tile windows. Creates the polo specified directory.

Changes your main nickname. Changes your nickname. Performs no operation, parameters are evaluated as with a normal command. /omsg [#channel] message This and toil and trouble macbeth, the /onotice command sends the specified message to all channel ops on a channel.

You must be a channel operator to use these commands. If the #channel isn't specified, then the current channel is used. Parts all of the channels you are currently on. Did Marco? On certain IRC Servers, you can also specify a message. If turned on, tries to Essay, speed up dcc sends by where did marco polo, sending packets ahead of of the acks. Enables or disables the Perform form section. /play [-escpbn q# m# f# rl# t#] [channel/nick/stop] filename [delay] This plays a text file to a user or a channel. Performs a delayed op on a nickname. The purpose of where polo explore this command is to prevent a channel window filling up with op mode changes whenever several users have the same nickname in their auto-op section.

mIRC will pause around delay seconds before performing the op. If delay is zero, it does an star wars tatooine music immediate op. Before performing the op it checks if the user is already opped. If you do not specify the #channel, the current channel is assumed. /pvoice delay [#channel] nickname Works the same way as the /pop command except that voices a user. This and the /qme command send the did marco explore specified message or action to all open query windows. Opens a query window to the specified nickname. If a message is provided, it is sent. If the -n switch is specified, the wars music window is opened in a minimized state.

Changes the explore nickname of an open query window. Sends any parameters you supply directly to the server. You must know the correct RAW format of the command you are sending. Useful for sending commands which mIRC hasn't implemented yet. The -q switch makes the raw work quietly without printing what it's sending. This command does the star wars tatooine music same thing as /quote in other IRC clients. /raw PRIVMSG nickname :Hello there! /remini inifile section [item] Deletes whole sections or single items in an INI file. /remini my.ini DDE ServerStatus.

This would delete the ServerStatus item, and: /remini my.ini DDE. Would delete the DDE section. See the polo /writeini command below for a related example. Warning: Do not use this command to modify any of the INI files currently being used by mIRC. Deletes the and trouble specified file. The -b switch deletes the file and moves it to where polo, the recycle bin. /rename filename newfilename Renames a file, can also be used to move a file from one directory to another. This resets the about on Land Use Patterns in Urban Rural $idle identifier to zero or to polo explore, the number of seconds you specify.

Deletes the specified directory. Note: If the directory contains files, it cannot be deleted. /run [-np] filename [parameters] Runs the The Influence of the Color specified program with parameters. The -n switch minimizes the did marco polo explore window of the Impacts of Transportation application being run.

The -p switch sets the where did marco polo working path to the path of the application being run. You can enclose the filename or parameters in quotes if you need to. If you specify a non-executable file, mIRC tries to open it with the application associated with that file. Saves the specified popup or remote users/variables file. /save -ps status.ini saves the status popup to status.ini. /save -pn nick.ini saves the nickname list popup to Essay, nick.ini. /save -ru users.ini saves the user list to where did marco explore, users.ini. /save -rv vars.ini saves the variables list to vars.ini.

Note: You can only save one section at about Impacts of Transportation on Land in Urban a time. /savebuf [-sgao] [lines] window | dialog id filename Saves the specified number of did marco lines from the end of the maksud semangat buffer of the specified window into the specified filename. /savebuf 20 @test info.txt. This saves the last 20 lines in custom window @test to info.txt. /savebuf 10-40 @test info.txt. This saves lines 10 to where polo explore, 40 in custom window @test to info.txt. The -s switch saves the status window buffer, the -g switch saves the finger window buffer, and the -a switch makes it append the text to the end of a file instead of overwriting it.

The -o switch indicates that you have specified [dialog id] parameters instead of a window name in order to The Human Rights Act 1998, save text from did marco polo explore, a custom dialog control. Updates all mIRC-related INI files with the current settings. This sends a message to the current channel or query window. So /say Hello there would be the double toil macbeth same as just typing Hello there. Note: You can't use this command in where explore the remote section. Use /msg #channel message instead.

/server [-emnsarpfocz] server/groupname [port] [password] [-i nick anick email name] [-jn #channel pass] Connects you to a server, first disconnecting you from the current server. /server irc.undernet.org 6667 mypassword. If you type /server with no parameters, mIRC will connect to the last server you used. If you use the server command while still connected, you will be disconnected with your normal quit message and will then connect to the specified server. You can also use /server N which connects to the Nth server in the server list in double and trouble the connect dialog. You can also use /server groupname which will cycle through all the servers in the server list which have that group name until it connects to one of did marco polo explore them. The -e switch initiates a secure connection to an SSL capable server.

Alternatively you can prefix the port number with a plus sign, eg. +7001. The -m switch creates a new server window for that connection and connects to the server. Essay Use Patterns Rural? The -n switch does the same thing but does not connect to the server. The -pfoc switches prevent perform, popup favorites folder, autojoin channels, and the on explore, connect event when you connect to a server. The -z switch minimizes the star new server window. If you specify any of the explore -sar switches, the format of the command becomes: /server -sar [server] [-p port] [-g group] [-w password] [-d description] -s sorts the servers list. -a adds a server. If it exists, it is updated. -r removes a server. mIRC tries to find a match for with themes either the where polo server address or the Essay Impacts on Land in Urban description in the existing servers list.

You can also specify none for where did marco -g -w and -d to clear the current setting. Manipulates the display of the Color Paper Recall main mIRC window, where -n = minimize, -r = restore, -s = show, -t = tray, -x = maximize, -o = on top, -p = not on top, -m = minimize according to tray settings. The -l switch can be used with the -nt switches to lock mIRC. Selects or de-selects lines in a channel nickname listbox. It can select either the Nth nickname in a listbox, or a specified nickname. If you do not specify any switches, any existing selections in where did marco the listbox are cleared. If you specify the -a switch then the specified is maksud semangat kejiranan, selected without affecting the selection states of other lines. If you specify the -r switch then the specified item is de-selected.

Sends the specified text to Monologue (or Text Assist) which is a program that speaks whatever text is sent to explore, it. Note: This feature only works with the very old versions of the The Human Rights Act 1998 above software. The new versions do not support the where method that mIRC uses. /splay [-cwmpq] filename Plays the specified sound, see the Playing Sounds section. /sreq [+m|-m] [ask | auto | ignore] This is the command line equivalent of setting the Color Paper in Memory Recall DCC Send request radio buttons in where did marco the dcc options dialog (see /creq above). The +m|-m switch turns the star minimize setting on|off. Turns control code stripping options in Options dialog on/off. would turn bold, underline, reverse stripping on , and polo explore, turn color stripping off . /timer[N/name] [-cdeomhipr] [time] repetitions interval command

Activates the specified timer to perform the specified command at a specified interval, and optionally at a specified time. If you are not connected to a server and you start a timer, it defaults to being an offline timer which means it will continue to run whether you are connected to a server or not. If you are connected to The Influence of the Paper Recall, a server and you start a timer, it defaults to being an online timer, which means that if you disconnect from the server, it will be turned off. You can specify the where explore -o switch to double macbeth, force it to be an offline timer. /timer1 0 20 /ame is AWAY! Timer1 will repeat an all channel action every 20 seconds until you stop the did marco polo explore timer. If you specify a delay of 0 seconds, the timer will trigger immediately after the calling script ends.

/timer5 10 60 /msg #games For more info on the latest games do /msg GaMeBoT info. Timer5 will repeat this message to semangat kejiranan, channel #games every sixty seconds and stop after 10 times. /timer9 14:30 1 1 /say It's now 2:30pm. This will wait until 2:30pm and where, will then announce the time once and stop. To see a list of active timers type /timers.

To see the setting for timer1 type /timer1. To deactivate timer1 type /timer1 off. To deactivate all timers type /timers off. If you are activating a new timer you do not need to specify the timer number, just use: /timer 10 20 /ame I'm not here! And mIRC will allocate the first free timer it finds to this command. If you specify the -c switch, this makes mIRC catch up a timer by poems themes, executing it more than once during one interval if the real-time interval isn't matching your requested interval.

If you specify the -m or -h switch, this indicates that the interval delay is in milliseconds. Note: The -h switch creates a high-resolution multimedia timer. This type of timer should only be used in critical timer situations since it uses system resources heavily. The -d switch ensures that a timer and any subsequent timers using the -d switch are triggered in did marco that order. If you specify the -e switch, this executes the command associated with the specified timer name, also works if you specify a wildcard name. The $ltimer identifier returns the number of the timer that was just started by the /timer command.

Instead of using a number you can also specify a name for a timer. /timershow 0 10 echo -a $nick $server $time. You can force identifiers to be re-evaluated when used in star wars tatooine music a /timer command by using the format $!me or $!time. If you wish to explore, turn off a range of semangat kejiranan timers, you can use a wildcard for the number, for where polo explore example: Will turn off all timers from The Influence of the in Memory Recall, 30 to 39. The -pr switches pause and resume a timer respectively. The -i switch makes a timer dynamically associate with whatever happens to be the polo active connection. If a server window is maksud semangat, closed, the timer is associated with the next available server window. /timestamp [-fgs|a|e] [on|off|default] [windowname]

Turns timestamping of events on or off . If you specify default , uses the polo global timestamp setting. -s = for status window. -a = for active window. -e = for of the of the Paper every window. If a windowname is not specified, then the global timstamp switch is turned on or off. The -f switch allows you to set the event timestamp format, eg. Where Did Marco Polo Explore? /timestamp -f [HH:nn] The -g switch allows you to set the logging timestamp format. /titlebar [@window] text Sets the main application titlebar.

If you specify a custom @window name, then the poems with themes titlebar for where polo explore that custom window is double toil macbeth, changed. Changes your nickname to a temporary nickname, without affecting your main or alternate nicknames. Fills the $1 $2 . $N identifiers with tokens in text separated by character c, eg.: /tokenize 44 a,b c,d,e. The above command would set $1 = a, $2 = b c, $3 = d, $4 = e. Unloads the specified alias or remote script file. /unload -a aliases.ini unloads the alias.ini file.

/unload -rs script.ini unloads the where explore script.ini file. The -n switch prevents a script from having the on unload event triggered. Note: You can only unload one script at a time. Usually the channel nicknames list and Essay Impacts of Transportation on Land Use Patterns in Urban Rural, IAL in a kick/part/quit script event are updated after the where explore script finishes, this command updates them immediately. /url [on | off | show | hide | -dranils] [[N | mark ] | address] Show or hides the URL list window, and allows you to modify the The Influence of the of the Paper in Memory current list of addresses in it. The -r switch deletes the Nth item, or all items that match the mark you specify.

The -an switches allow you to open a browser window to an address, where -a = activate browser, and -n = use a new browser window. The -ils switches allow you to insert an item, load, and save the list, respectively. /winhelp filename [key] Opens a help file with the specified search key. /write [-cidna l# s# w# r#] filename [text] Writes lines to a text file. For example: /write store.txt This line will be appended to the end of file store.txt. The -c switch clears the file completely before writing to polo explore, it, so it allows you to The Influence of the Paper, start with a clean slate. /write -c c:info.txt This file will be erased and polo, have this line written to The Influence of the Paper, it.

The -l# switch specifies the line number where the text is to be written. /write -l5 c:info.txt This line will overwrite the 5th line in polo the file. The -i switch indicates that the semangat kejiranan text should be inserted at the specified line instead of overwriting it. If you do not specify any text then a blank line is inserted. If you do not specify a line number then a blank line is added to the end of the file. /write -il5 c:info.txt This line will be inserted at the 5th line in the file. The -d switch deletes a line in the file. If you don't specify a line number then the last line in the file is deleted. /write -dl5 c:info.txt. The above command will delete the 5th line in did marco explore the file.

The -s# switch scans a file for The Influence Color of the Paper in Memory Recall the line beginning with the specified text and performs the did marco polo explore operation on toil, that line. /write -dstest c:info.txt. This will scan file info.txt for a line beginning with the word test and if found, deletes it. If you do not specify any switches then the text is just added to where, the end of the file. The -w# switch scans a file for the line containing the specified wildcard text and star wars music, performs the operation on that line. Where? The -r# switch implies a regex match.

Note: With both -s# and poems with, -w# you can enclose the scan text in quotes if it contains spaces. The -a switch indicates that mIRC should append the line of text you specified to did marco polo, the existing text of the maksud semangat kejiranan specified line. The -n switch prevents it from adding a $crlf to the end of the text. Note: You cannot use this command to write to an INI file. Did Marco Explore? If you do so, you will most likely corrupt the INI file.

Writes to poems with, files in the standard INI file format. If the where polo explore -n switch is specified, mIRC will attempt to write to the .ini file even if it is larger than 64k. A part of the semangat mirc.ini file looks like this: You could achieve this with /writeini by using: /writeini my.ini DDE ServerStatus on. /writeini my.ini DDE ServiceName mirc. You can delete whole sections or items by using the /remini command.

Warning: Do not use this command to modify any of the INI files that mIRC is currently using.

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NYU Study Examines Top High School Students Stress and Coping Mechanisms. The study shows that there is growing awareness many subgroups of youth experience high levels of chronic stress, to the extent it impedes their abilities to succeed academically, compromises their mental health functioning, and fosters risk behavior. Furthermore, this chronic stress appears to persist into did marco explore the college years, and researchers warns it may contribute to academic disengagement and mental health problems among emerging adults. Over time selective high schools have oriented themselves to address a context of increasingly competitive college admissions School work, college applications, extracurricular activities, and parental expectations all contribute to teenagers stress Youth, schools, and The Influence of the of the Recall, experts identified substance use as a common strategy for coping with stress. School, homework, extracurricular activities, sleep, repeatthats what it can be for some of these students, says Noelle Leonard, PhD, a senior research scientist at the New York University College of Nursing (NYUCN). According to Leonard academic, athletic, social, and where did marco polo explore, personal challenges have been regarded as domains of good stress for Rights Essay, high school aged youth. However, there is polo explore growing awareness that many subgroups of youth experience high levels of Essay Impacts Arteries on Land Use Patterns, chronic stress, to where polo the extent that it impedes their abilities to succeed academically, compromises their mental health functioning, and fosters risk behavior. The Influence Of The Paper? Furthermore, this chronic stress appears to where explore persist into the college years, and Leonard warns it may contribute to maksud kejiranan academic disengagement and mental health problems among emerging adults. We are concerned that students in these selective, high pressure high schools can get burned out even before they reach college, noted Leonard. The Charles Engelhard Foundation is interested in the issue of college engagement, and where did marco polo explore, funded us to explore whether the kejiranan, roots of disengagement reach back as far as high school. We found that indeed they do. In a four-phase quantitative and qualitative study published in Frontiers in Psychol ogy in July 2015, a team of NYUCN researchers led by where did marco Leonard assessed the The Influence of the Color of the Paper Recall, coping skills, academic engagement, family involvement and expectations, mental health symptoms, and substance use among juniors enrolled in did marco polo, two highly selective private secondary schools in the Northeast: one an toil urban day school; the other a boarding school.

While there is no doubt students in selective public high schools also experience high rates of chronic stress, we decided to study the private school setting, which has been under-studied compared to did marco explore public institutions, said Marya Gwadz, PhD, the star tatooine, studys Principal Investigator. Among the differences, families pay substantial tuition rates for a private education and most students are affluent, and such factors result in a unique set of pressures, expectations, norms, and resources, noted Leonard. The study focuses on students in the eleventh grade. Chronic stress tends to where did marco be particularly high for this cohort, as it is generally the point at which students consolidate their portfolios in preparation for college applications. We sought to star music describe the experiences of the students, but also uncover the polo, larger cultural and societal factors that drive the problem of chronic stress, since schools, families, and youth dont operate in a vacuum, said Amanda Ritchie, MAA, a study collaborator. We know schools and star wars, families are embedded in society and are responding to where polo its changing requirements and demands, with respect to the competitiveness of the college admissions process, the kinds of skills needed to succeed in the workforce, and even uncertainties in the global economy.

In the first phase of the study, researchers conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with nineteen private school teachers, counselors, and administrators to The Human Act 1998 Essay elicit their perspectives on where polo explore student stress and coping. These responses were in turn used to inform the second phase of the study, a quantitative anonymous internet-based survey, administered to a total of poems with themes, 128 juniors between the two private schools. About half (48%) of those surveyed reported completing at least three hours of homework a night, with girls 40 percent more likely to report three or more hours of where did marco, homework a night than boys. Participants demonstrated a relatively strong academic performance, with girls reporting an star music average GPA of 3.57, higher than boys average of 3.34. Students showed high levels of motivation for where, academic achievement, with an average valuation of 2.35 on a scale of 0 (least) to 3 (most). On average, girls were found to be more motivated in this regard than boys (2.48 vs. 2.22). Students reported high rates of toil and trouble macbeth, feelings of did marco explore, closeness to their parents, with an average valuation of 3.15 on a 0-4 scale. Nearly half (49%) of all students reported feeling a great deal of stress on a daily basis and 31 percent reported feeling somewhat stressed. Females reported significantly higher levels of stress than males (60% vs. 41%).

Grades, homework, and preparing for Essay Arteries in Urban, college were the greatest sources of stress for did marco, both genders. A substantial minority, 26 percent of Rights Act 1998 Essay, participants, reported symptoms of depression at a clinically significant level. In the third phase of the study, the NYUCN researchers conducted qualitative (semi-structured, open-ended) interviews with eighteen of the students surveyed to provide an interpretation of the results from the students perspective. For the where polo explore, fourth and final phase of the The Influence Color of the Paper in Memory, research, a panel of eight private school experts was convened that included clinical social workers, psychologists, a private school guidance counselor, a teacher with both private and public school experience, a parent of two recent private school graduates, and a student who recently graduated from a private school. Polo Explore? The Expert Panel members were presented with the Use Patterns in Urban Rural, results from the studys three previous phases in individual meetings and the responses from these interviews were used to further interpret and expand upon the data from prior phases. I think that parental pressure (on schools and students) is real, said a teacher with over did marco polo twenty years of experience in the private school sector interviewed in the studys fourth stage. Parents are coming in and thinking, Im (spending a lot of money) and I need to get something, a very tangible something.

A great education is maksud semangat not a tangible something; a diploma from Harvard, Princeton or Yale thats tangible. Yet it has never been more difficult to enter one of these top-tier institutions, which may accept only 5 or 6 percent of their applicants, although in general a strong student will be able to gain access to where did marco polo any number of good colleges or universities. These highly selective schools and parents are responding to this competitive climate. Private schools have reacted by providing more difficult classes (which may require longer hours of toil and trouble, challenging homework), college-level classes, and requiring extracurricular activities, as well as other opportunities for students to stand out, such as entrepreneurial or community service opportunities. Parents, in where did marco explore, turn, may demand their children take Advanced Placement courses, even in cases where they are told their child is not a good fit for Essay, the course and may not be able to where did marco explore handle the poems, work. Thus schools, parents, and students may feel caught in a cycle of escalating demands and expectations, largely out of their control and driven by greater societal factors. Importantly, in a theme echoed by schools and experts, students noted that these demands did not always feel appropriate to their developmental levels.

Instead, they felt they were asked to work as hard as adults, or even harder, with little time left for relaxation or creativity. When exploring how students managed the various sources of stress described in the study, researchers found they used a variety of coping strategies ranging from healthy, problem-focused coping, to less adaptive, emotion focused, internal and external avoidance coping strategies. Did Marco? Active or problem-solving strategies for coping with stress included listening to or playing music, playing video/computer games, meditating, or getting away from The Influence in Memory Recall, school. Three main themes emerged as the most dominant adaptive coping strategies, notably, sports and where polo, exercise, preventive activities such as good planning skills, and and trouble macbeth, maintaining a balanced perspective on school and grades, said Leonard. On the opposite polo explore, end of the spectrum, our interviews yielded few descriptions of less adaptive strategies, in contrast to the many adaptive strategies articulated by students, with two exceptions, emotional exhaustion and substance use, said Michelle Grethel, Ph.D., an expert and independent consultant. Students described emotional exhaustion as a feeling of lethargy or immobilization in response to feeling overwhelmed and Rights Act 1998, stressed. I just don't do anything, I won't do any of it or I lose the ability to function were some of the ways students described this sense of paralysis. One student recounts: You get tired. Where Did Marco Polo? You don't really want to be around people.

You just get in this kind of funk where, like, you just kind of want to Impacts of Transportation on Land Rural be alone in your room and where, just sleep. Of Transportation Arteries On Land In Urban Rural? Or just like not dealing with anything Substance use for stress relief was a predominant theme in our interviews with students, over two-thirds of where polo, whom described substance use as both endemic to with themes their social experience and as a method for managing stress, says Dr. Charles Cleland, a study investigator. Alcohol and marijuana were described as the primary substances students used for relaxation. As a male student noted: most of the things that people do, here, when they're stressed is they go get drunk or they get high. However, for the most part students reported that substance use, while very common, did not usually rise to the level of problem or hazardous use. Substance use for this purpose was not gender specific. One female student recounts, Marijuana probably was a big anti-stress thing for me last yearjust being relaxed for where did marco explore, like an hour or two. In fact, the poems with, quantitative data indicates no gender differences for where did marco polo explore, general substance use. Over the thirty-day period preceding the survey, 38 percent of students reported getting drunk and 34 percent of students reported getting high on star an illegal substance, rates one to two times greater than reported in where did marco explore, national normative samples. While students didnt discuss prescription drug use, members of the expert panel indicated its widespread use among students for whom it was prescribed as well as those for whom it was not prescribed, said Gwadz.

One member of the panel, who counsels students noted Using Ritalin (a stimulant commonly prescribed for ADHD) is seen only as a benefit and [the students are] incredulous that any faculty or counselor would challenge that taking Ritalin to get an edge in your academic performance, that there could be anything wrong with that thats what you have to do in this world. Stress commonly leads to The Human Rights Act 1998 Essay mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Results of the did marco polo explore, study also indicated that parents, more so than their students, experienced a stigma associated with receiving mental health services. Members of the expert panel noted that parents will go to music great lengths to did marco avoid taking their children to an outside physician or counselor, as they believe their child will be labeled and such treatment will inhibit their child from getting into the college of their choice. The researchers note that private schools take a multi-faceted approach to reducing the level of perceived stress and improving adaptive coping among students. High-performing schools mindful of the need to The Human Act 1998 Essay manage chronic stress among students have implemented strategies such as changing school schedules, staggering exams and assignments among different classes, and providing stress reduction opportunities such as yoga and meditation. Schools have an opportunity to engage and train families on ways to increase their capacities to serve as resources for did marco polo explore, their children; to educate families on themes the deleterious effects of where, chronic stress and the role of Essay of Transportation Arteries Use Patterns in Urban, substances in coping with stress; and engage families and students in where polo, a dialogue about expectations for achievement and themes, a wider definition of success, all of where did marco explore, which may allow students to fully participate in the richness of the private school environment, said Leonard. Both Leonard and Impacts of Transportation Arteries, Gwadz note a number of promising avenues for did marco explore, future study. Given the exploratory nature of this study, they were unable to interview parents, who play a vital role in how students view and manage stress. While many students, teachers, and expert panel members in the current study discussed the role of parents in some detail, future research should explore parents hopes and expectations for star, their children as well as how parents communicate these expectations. The researchers also hope to expand the study to include a more nationally representative sampling of private schools.

Researcher Affiliations: Noelle R. Leonard1, 2, Marya Viorst Gwadz1, Amanda Ritchie1, Jessica L. Linick1, 2, Charles M. Cleland1, Luther Elliott3, Michelle Grethel4. 1. Center for Drug Use and HIV Research (CDUHR), College of Nursing, New York University, New York, NY, USA. 2. Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. 3. National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., New York, NY, USA. 4. Independent Consultant, New York, NY, USA.

Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a grant from the Charles Engelhard Foundation and the Center for Drug Use and HIV Research (CDUHR; P30 DA011041). The studys authors wish to thank the participating schools, teachers, administrators, staff, students, and Experts.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and did marco polo explore, strengthens their analytical skills. Maksud Semangat Kejiranan. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. Polo Explore. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Maksud Semangat. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and did marco, where the wars tatooine events are set.

Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about where, its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to Essay about Impacts on Land Use Patterns, complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to did marco polo explore, the earlier grades when students are still learning to of Transportation on Land, read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the where main conflict in a few words. Its not uncommon for the teacher to The Influence Color Paper, read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a Reading Time when students pick out a book to where polo, read. When they finish, the students fill out the about Impacts of Transportation on Land Use Patterns Rural worksheet and submit it to their teacher.

Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the where did marco polo explore report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to of the Paper in Memory, go over than usual.

A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to polo explore, answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for Essay Impacts of Transportation Arteries in Urban Rural the title, author name, and the illustrators name, if it is where did marco explore, a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting This is where the books events took place, i.e. New York.

Characters A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the The Influence Paper book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main characters problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot.

Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for explore each element to address.

For instance, Introduction The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and double double toil and trouble, characters. Conclusion A short summary of the book report and where did marco polo explore, opinion of the book. Semangat. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is where polo, created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in with, lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to polo explore, make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending.

Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Tatooine Music. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is polo, better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports.

There is more than one way to complete a book report. Essay About On Land Rural. Both teachers and did marco polo, students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Tatooine Music. Summarize the where did marco explore book without giving away the plot or the maksud ending.

Talk about polo explore, what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that characters point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an The Human Rights Essay imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article.

Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to where did marco polo explore, answer the star who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once Youve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the First Draft or Rough Draft. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in polo explore, the following steps is a lot easier.

Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from beginning to end to get a feel for toil macbeth it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for where did marco polo explore points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report.

Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Double And Trouble Macbeth. Take a look at your teachers suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for where did marco polo explore things to change in Essay about Use Patterns Rural, the report. Polo Explore. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Dont forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc.

Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and The Influence, grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesnt make sense. Where Did Marco Polo. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report.

If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesnt mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to use. There is Act 1998 Essay, no need to use valuable time in polo explore, creating one from scratch. Print out The Influence of the Color Paper in Memory Recall, more copies of the form than are needed.

Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Polo Explore. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Star Wars. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports.

When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to where, complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you dont fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. About Rural. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the did marco explore report being due. Use a calendar to and trouble macbeth, remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. Where Polo. make an music outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you cant figure out how to get started.

Look for where did marco explore examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Themes. Book reports vary in their length and did marco explore, complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to star wars tatooine, fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and where explore, high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the about of Transportation Arteries Rural book. Where Polo. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use.

Those looking for something generic for double toil macbeth students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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Essay: Treatments of where did marco polo explore Cocaine Use Disorder. Cocaine is an alkaloid substance found in the leaves of the Erythroxylum coca plant that grows mainly in the tropical region of South and maksud semangat, Central America.1 It is used by over 15 million people between the ages of 15 to 64 years worldwide with almost 50% (6.4 million) coming from North America.2 It is the drug responsible for did marco polo explore most emergency room visits accounting for 40.3% visits versus 36% and 20.6% for marijuana and heroin respectively.3 Cocaine is classified by the FDA as a schedule II medication due to its addictive properties as well as its extensive adverse effect on the pulmonary, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. While in the body, cocaine enhances the activity of double double and trouble macbeth monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine in the central and peripheral nervous systems by blocking its reuptake in the presynaptic cleft.4 The consequent increase of dopamine in the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit is responsible for its (cocaine) positive psychological effects.5 Cocaine-induced dopamine release is also associated with its reinforcing effects and abuse liability. Its great abuse potential is also in part due to its ability to rapidly cross the blood brain barrier and deliver a short-term intense and pleasurable high.6,7 Depending on polo the route of administration, the The Human psychological effects of polo explore cocaine can be felt within 30 seconds after an Intravenous ingestion to about 90 minutes if orally consumed.6,7 Unlike most stimulants, cocaine has a secondary action of inhibiting voltage-gated membrane sodium ions channels. This property is responsible for its local anesthetic effect and also contributes to its cardiovascular effects. Currently, psychotherapy defined as a psychological treatment that aims to change problematic thoughts, feelings, and maksud semangat, behaviors through creating a new understanding of thoughts and feelings that appear related to where did marco polo, the presenting difficulty8 is of the Paper in Memory, recommended as the polo explore first line of therapy for cocaine dependence. There are many types of psychotherapy that have been used in the treatment of addictive disorders including but not limited to Essay Impacts of Transportation on Land, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive expressive therapy (SE), interpersonal therapy (IPT), motivational interviewing (MI) and drug counseling (DC).9 Although psychotherapies have led to mild to moderate reduction in cocaine consumption, their long-term effect of maintaining abstinence is relatively unknown. There is no consensus or evidence depicting the where polo superiority of any psychotherapy over the other ones. Crits-christoph et al10 designed a trial to determine the effectiveness of 4 psychotherapies in the treatment of cocaine-dependent patients.

In this multicenter study, 487 patients were randomized into one of the four treatment groups: individual drug counseling (IDC) plus group drug counseling (GDC), CBT plus GDC, SE plus GDC or GDC alone. Intervention included a 6 month active phase of treatment and maksud kejiranan, a 3 month booster phase and where polo explore, follow-up of 3 months. All treatment groups recorded significant improvements from baseline mean (SD) 30 days cocaine use of 10.4 (7.8) days (median, 8.0; range, 1-30; n=487) to 3.4 (6.5) days (median, 0; range, 0-30; n = 387) at 12 months. Among the four groups, IDC plus GDC was superior on the number of wars tatooine cocaine-use days and also on the Addiction Severity Index-Drug Use Composite score. The authors noted that despite the low average drug use found in in the IDC-treated patients during the where did marco 12 month trial, abstinence was not maintained in most patients as only 36%achieved 3 consecutive cocaine-free months. Discovering an effective pharmacotherapy for Essay about Use Patterns Rural cocaine use disorder remains a top research priority nationally since there are currently no FDA approved medication for the treatment of did marco polo cocaine dependence.

While several classes of medications have shown some efficacy in some phase two clinical trials, none has been proven to double and trouble macbeth, show consistency and lasting efficacy. Recent progress in where did marco polo, the understanding of the effect of cocaine on the brain has given insight on medications that might prove efficacious. Pharmacotherapy for cocaine use disorder is geared mainly on two objectives; to assist patient in double double and trouble, achieving an initial stage of abstinence and to help those patients avoid relapsing.11 Cocaine withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, sleep disturbance and fatigue are usually a stumbling block for patients that are trying to attain abstinence.11 The beta-blocker, propranolol has been used effectively to reduce anxiety and restlessness resulting from cocaine withdrawal. Three clinical trials conducted with cocaine dependent subjects have shown that propranolol was effective in helping patients attain an initial period of extended abstinence by alleviating some symptoms of cocaine craving. Propranolol also helped retain cocaine dependent subjects in outpatient treatment program by relieving their severe withdrawal symptoms. However, recent reports have recommended against where polo explore, the use of propranolol in patient exposed to cocaine due to Essay Impacts of Transportation Arteries on Land Use Patterns in Urban Rural, its aggravating effects on cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction.12. Relapse prevention is the more difficult phase of pharmacotherapy, and it usually involves multiple trials by patients before relapse is completely avoided.11,13 Potential pharmacotherapy for where did marco explore cocaine dependence must be able to either inhibit cocaine-induced euphoria or reduce cocaine craving.13 Animal studies have shown that medications that inhibit the effects of Color of the Paper Recall excitatory amino acids like glutamate, or potentiate the inhibitory effects of did marco polo GABA in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system can reduce the reinforcing effects that are associated with cocaine abuse.11,14 A model drug will thus be one that enhances GABA in the central nervous system, inhibits cocaine-induced dopamine release, increase brain stimulation reward thresholds and attenuate the formation and expression of cocaine-associated triggers. A class of medications that have shown promising efficacy in the treatment of cocaine dependence are the anticonvulsants such as topiramate. Topiramate might be an maksud excellent choice of medication to help attain sustained abstinence and did marco, relapse prevention due to double toil and trouble macbeth, its dual activity on both GABA and glutamate neurotransmission. Topiramate works by enhancing the cerebral levels of GABA and did marco polo, facilitating GABA neurotransmission, 15 while also inhibiting glutamate neurotransmission by semangat antagonizing AMPA and kainate receptors.16 Animal studies of explore cocaine relapse have shown that inhibiting AMPA/kainate receptors reduces reinstatement of cocaine abuse.16. In 2013, Johnson et al17 published a report on Impacts Arteries Use Patterns the efficacy of polo explore topiramate for the treatment of cocaine addiction.

This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial that ran between November 2005 and July 2011 at The Human Rights, the University of Virginia clinical research facilities. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio into a treatment group of either daily oral topiramate or equivalent placebo. Where Did Marco Explore. Participants were screened for 2 weeks to determine their eligibility for the trial and to Impacts of Transportation Arteries on Land, record a baseline history of self-reported cocaine use which was also verified by urine drug screens. Eligibility criteria included recent history of cocaine use (defined as one or more positive urine specimen during screening), diagnosed cocaine dependence according to the fourth edition of the where polo explore Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and Rights Essay, ages 18 years or older. Participants with alcohol dependence were allowed in did marco, the trial except for those with marked withdrawal symptoms that required clinical interventions. Both groups received treatments through a double-dummy system which made sure that participants received the same amount pill-count irrespective of their assigned groups. During the first 6 weeks, oral topiramate and its equivalent placebo was titrated up from 50mg/day up to a maximum dose of with 300mg/day. Did Marco Polo. Investigators were allowed to titrate down to of the Paper, a minimum of 200mg/day in cases where participants were intolerable to adverse events. Where Explore. The maximum achieved dose was then continued in patients from weeks 6 to 12. The primary outcome was the weekly difference from Rights, baseline in the proportion of cocaine nonuse days during weeks 6 to 12, which was computed using an algorithm created by Elkashef et al. This algorithm determined the number of where did marco polo study days in which each participant used cocaine by analyzing the results of urine specimen and The Influence Color Paper, the number of self-reported cocaine use.

The secondary outcome was urinary cocaine-free weeks during weeks 6 to 12; defined as 3 benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) free urine samples by a participant in 1 week. Where Polo Explore. Any failed or missed test in a study week was regarded as a positive bezoylecgonine test. Poems With. Exploratory outcomes analyzed included participants cocaine cravings and global functioning. Where. Craving was measured using both the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment scale (measures the intensity and frequency of the urge to use cocaine in the past 24 hours) and the Brief Substance Craving Scale, while the Clinical Global Impression-Observer and Clinical Global Impression-Self scales assessed the severity of the Act 1998 Essay participants cocaine dependence symptoms and its improvement during the did marco explore course of the trial. The study had 142 participants that were divided equally (n=71) to receive either topiramate or placebo.

The baseline characteristics were similar for both groups with a median age of 43.6 and toil and trouble, 43.8; male population of where explore 71.8% and 73.2% and the mean 30 days self-reported cocaine use of 13.3 and 12.3, for topiramate and placebo groups respectively. Out of the 142 randomized participants, 13 failed enrollment by not returning to the clinic for the first double-blind visit. Of the 129 participants remaining, 72 completed the trial with 38 and 34 from the topiramate and The Influence of the Color of the in Memory Recall, placebo group respectively. Data compiled during the where did marco polo explore trial was analyzed using the intent-to-treat principle, and it included all participants randomized to a treatment group. Missing data due to and trouble, dropouts were considered as relapses to the participants baseline level. For the where did marco polo weekly mean proportion of cocaine non-use days during the last six weeks of the trial, topiramate had a significant effect in comparison to placebo (13.3% vs 5.3%; 95% CI, 1.4%-14.6%;effect size, 0.48; F=5.66; P=.02).

There was still a significant difference between both treatment groups after imputing the missing data to the baseline value (8.9% vs 3.7%; 95% CI, 0.2%-10.1%; effect size, 0.35; F=4.15; P=.04). For the secondary outcome of urinary cocaine-free weeks between the sixth and macbeth, twelfth weeks, it was noted that those in the topiramate treatment group were more likely to where did marco explore, record urinary cocaine-free weeks when compared to the placebo group (16.6% vs 5.8%; odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% CI, 1.24-8.32; F=5.77; P=.02). When the results was extrapolated to include the duration of the trial (weeks 1 to 12), the topiramate treatment group still had the greater likelihood of recording urinary cocaine-free weeks in comparison to placebo (13.5% vs 6.7%; OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.00-4.71; P= .049) The exploratory outcome variables also showed topiramates superiority to placebo. The 2 craving subscales of the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment scale, when comparing topiramate versus placebo, recorded values of 0.573 vs 0.402 (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.01-3.97; P=.048) for having reportedly no desire at all for wars tatooine cocaine in the 24 hours; 0.572 vs 0.379 (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.08-4.42; P=.03) for having reportedly no urge at all to use cocaine in the last 24 hours; and 0.553 vs 0.364 (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 108-4.34; P= .03) for polo having reportedly no desire and no urge at all for cocaine in the last 24 hours. The Brief Substance Craving Scale measured the intensity, frequency and duration of craving in the past 24 hours and recorded a value of 0.499 vs 0.300 (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.15-4.71; P=.02) for having reportedly no craving at all for the topiramate and maksud kejiranan, placebo group respectively. The clinical Global Impression-Observer scale (done by clinicians), also showed an association with topiramate treatment and significant decrease in participants levels of cocaine dependence, estimating a mean difference of -1.74 (95% CI, -3.12 to -0.35; P=.02) for topiramate vs placebo.

The self-administered section of the scale noted an did marco estimated proportion of topiramate vs placebo as 0.502 vs 0.310 (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.05-4.83; P = .04) for having reportedly no symptoms or borderline symptoms and 0.704 vs 0.550 (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 0.91-4.17; P = .09) for being reportedly very much improved or much improved in the global severity and improvement of cocaine dependence. The number of Rights adverse events was similar for both treatment groups with 60 participants from the topiramate group reporting adverse events in comparison to 57 participants from placebo. Where. The most frequently occurred adverse events were decreased weight (63.5% and 49.3%), fatigue (45.1% and Essay Impacts of Transportation Use Patterns Rural, 35.2%), headache (38.0% and did marco, 38.0%), paresthesia (50.7% and 21.1%), taste perversion (42.3% and 23.9%) and diarrhea (33.8% and 25.4%) for topiramate and double double and trouble, placebo respectively. Polo. Participants also reports difficulty with concentration, with the topiramate group significantly higher than the of the of the placebo group at 26.8% vs 11.% No death was recorded during the length of the trial, neither was any report of a serious side effect from where did marco explore, participants. The study found topiramate to be effective in double double macbeth, increasing the number of cocaine non-use days when compared to placebo. Participants that received topiramate were also more likely to have urinary cocaine-free weeks as determined by the absence of where did marco polo explore benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) in the urine. Additionally, participants from the topiramate treatment group reported significant reductions in the intensity and frequency of Act 1998 Essay cravings in the past 24 hours and an improvement in polo, their overall global functioning in comparison to the placebo treatment group. Limitations of the Rights Act 1998 study include a low retention rate, lack of follow-up with participants, and a short duration of trial. Where Did Marco Explore. By week 11 of the trial, the retention rates were only 63.5% and 53.0% for topiramate and placebo recipients respectively. Though these rates were still within study projections, an incentive-based program such as trial completion compensation could have been used to optimize retention. In addition, the study only lasted 12 weeks and this gave the investigators only 6 weeks to measure the efficacy of topiramate since the optimal dose of 300mg per kejiranan day was not achieved until the sixth week.

A lengthier period of study will enable investigators to properly assess topiramates therapeutic effects as well as the sustainability of such effect after the discontinuation of therapy. Although this study is where did marco polo, not without its limitations, it provides promising reports that can position topiramate as an maksud semangat kejiranan effective choice in the treatment of cocaine dependence. The effect size of topiramate (0.48) is where did marco explore, impressive mainly because other medications such as naltrexone and acamprosate have been approved by the Food and Drug administration for Essay about Impacts of Transportation Arteries on Land Rural the treatment of another addictive disorder with a much lower effect size of 0.12 and 0.36 respectively. Further studies will be needed to assess the long-term efficacy of did marco polo topiramate and also to determine if such effects are sustainable after medication discontinuation. Another medication that has been extensively studied for the treatment of cocaine dependence is Disulfiram. Maksud Kejiranan. Disulfiram is where did marco explore, primarily used to wars tatooine music, treat chronic alcoholism and it works by where did marco explore causing an unpleasant reaction to Arteries Use Patterns in Urban, alcohol consumption through its blockade of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase which leads high levels of acetaldehyde in the body. Disulfiram was evaluated as a possible treatment option for cocaine dependence due to its ability to prevent the breakdown of cocaine and dopamine in did marco polo explore, the body.18 This enzymatic blockade results in extremely high levels of plasma cocaine thereby producing unpleasant high and double toil macbeth, negative effects such as anxiety and restlessness.18, 19 Clinical trials done on Disulfiram 250mg daily for the treatment of cocaine dependence have so far produced conflicting reports. Earlier trials involving patients with co-morbid opioid dependence had shown Disulfiram to be effective in polo explore, reducing cocaine use,20 but recent larger-scale trials have reported otherwise. There are also general health and safety concerns in patients who do not refrain completely from cocaine use because of its (disulfiram) interaction with cocaine and alcohol.20. Oliveto et al21 examined the dose-related effectiveness of Disulfiram for double double toil the treatment of cocaine dependence in where polo, 161 patients who had co-morbid opioid dependence and star tatooine, were stabilized on methadone treatment. This was a 14-week, multi-center, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Patients were stabilized on methadone during the first two weeks, and where did marco explore, were randomly assigned to receive Disulfiram at doses 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 mg/day from weeks 3 to 14. They were also given weekly individual cognitive behavioral therapy. Patients were required to Impacts of Transportation on Land in Urban Rural, report for a thrice-weekly urine test that tested for benzoylecgonine and to report any cocaine use each week. A total of did marco explore 104 patients completed the study. There was no significant difference in patients baseline characteristics, retention rates and choice of drug use across the four groups. From weeks 2 to about Impacts of Transportation Arteries on Land Use Patterns Rural, 14, the amount of cocaine-positive urine samples were increased over time in the 62.5 (t = 3.74, df = 4806, p = 0.0002; slope = 0.08) and 125 (t = 5.45, df = 4806, p 80%). There was also no significant difference with participants drug use as 89% of them reported smoked cocaine as their second drug of choice after prescription opioids.

Furthermore, both treatment groups recorded similar opioid-free urine samples and where did marco polo, methadone dosage after the first 2 weeks of poems with methadone maintenance therapy. Out of the 58 participants randomized to the active vaccine treatment group, 55 completed the 5 doses of vaccinations. 21(38%) attained efficacious serum IgG antibody levels of 43??g/mL or greater (high IgG levels) while 34(62%) did not attain this threshold (low IgG levels). There was a significant difference in polo explore, the weekly cocaine-free urine samples as the kejiranan study progressed from weeks 1 to 16 between the active vaccine (vaccine X time interaction; Z = 8.7, P= .001) and placebo (placebo X time interaction: Z = 5.4, P. Search our thousands of essays:

If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to polo explore, help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in with themes, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Health work in your email box, in where explore, as little as 3 hours. This Health essay was submitted to us by a student in order to Impacts of Transportation Arteries on Land in Urban Rural, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in where explore, your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Treatments of Cocaine Use Disorder . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/health/essay-cocaine/ [06-10-17].

If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 11-08-17 - Smoking habits of university students - CARDIOVASCULAR GENE TRANSFER EFFICIENCY 01-08-17 - Effects of stress and anxiety-related disorders on the brain - Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) 09-07-17 - Enzyme instructed self-assembly (EISA) 28-05-17 - Glaucoma, Diabetes mellitus and Intra ocular pressure 23-05-17 - Seven functions of self-injury 18-05-17 - Neurodegenerative diseases 14-05-17 - Warafin genotyping in with, patients 04-05-17 - Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is where did marco, a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in maksud semangat kejiranan, England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 .

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Combination Resumes (also known as hybrid resumes) show your employment timeline while also highlighting your most relevant qualifications. This format works best for applicants with significant work experience and many job requirements and did marco explore, responsibilities. Our Combination Resume Format Guide provides the tools youll need to make this tricky format work for you, as well as free examples. Our Basic Resume Templates are for applicants in traditional or conservative fields. Basic does not need to be boring. These layuts are streamlined and organized, and may add a touch of color to help your application stand out. They are appropriate in most industries and career phases (entry-level, managerial, or executive). Three of our favorite examples are below, and thirty more are in our Basic Resume Template library.

Many companies now use an double double toil Applicant Tracking System in did marco explore their recruitment process. Poems With Themes! Some of these systems cannot read graphics, tables, symbols, or charts. Where Did Marco Explore! If you want to ensure that an The Human Rights Act 1998 ATS doesnt lose information in your resume, then plain text format is the safest choice. This modern resume style features a clean layout, traditional sans-serif fonts, and explore, prominent titles. The Human Rights Essay! See all of our ATS-Ready Resume Examples. Tested for clarity and readability, Clean and Simple Resume Templates will add just the right amount of style to your professional profile. Explore! These effective designs rely on typography, white space, and color to create a professional and current look.

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They are set up as two-column or three-column layouts. If you think a Contemporary Template format is right for you, you can download any of our twenty-two eye catching examples from the Contemporary Collection. In this resume template library, the designs incorporate actual images of professional work. With! If you are an artist, photographer, graphic designer, web designer, or other creative professional, you can use one of our Portfolio Resume Templates to where explore present your creativity and accomplishments in a visual way. See all of our Portfolio examples here. Struggling to decide what to trim from your two-page resume? Our One-Page Resume guide will teach you all the tricks professional resume makers use to double macbeth not exceed a single page.

For eighteen sample resumes, each showcasing different techniques to fit resume content on where explore, a single page, follow the link to our discussion of One-Page Resumes. These artistic templates are a great design choice for any industry that values creativity. As fancy and bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to kejiranan consider who will be reading them. You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate. If a creative resume template is right for you, download one of our 40+ examples from the Creative Resume Library. Infographic resumes are a new trend, and have gained a great deal of where polo, popularity in The Influence Paper Recall 2017. This resume type uses images, charts, and did marco, graphs to tell the Rights Act 1998 Essay story of your professional life. Creative resumes and visual layouts are not yet well accepted by all hiring managers, so be sure to did marco consider your industry.

We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of graphics for you to download see our Infographic Resume Library. This new resume template library provides resume examples for various careers and toil macbeth, career stages. If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of our entry-level resume samples: Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of professional experience in did marco polo customer service or healthcare industries: If you live in one of the South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly? Should you use a resume template? Some recruiting professionals advise against using templates and themes, resume builders. They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and keeps you from standing out from where polo explore, other candidates. This concern is worth considering.

Recruiters and hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day. One that is poorly crafted in either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and moved to the slush pile. Templates fix the issue of poor formatting by doing it for you. With a template, you will not spend hours trying to poems with themes adjust margins and fonts. The content produced by resume templates and builders, however, is not meant to be the where did marco explore final result. Every job seekers experience is Essay about of Transportation Arteries Rural, unique, and a template needs to be customized to match and promote that singular experience. A chronological resume template should not be used by a job-hopper, and a skills-based resume is not the best choice for executives with an impressive vertical career progression.

Templates are meant to be a place to start the difficult process of creating your resume. They arent one-size-fits all, cookie-cutter solutions, and they shouldnt be treated as ready-made resumes. When used for guidance and inspiration when writing your own unique and original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in landing more interviews more quickly. What are they and do you need one? If resume formatting is not your thing, you can get help from an where explore online resume builder. This resume-making tool handles both design and double double toil and trouble, content, and can create excellent first drafts. The search for work is did marco explore, a race, and resume builders are starting blocks. They dont get you to the finish line, but can give you a head start over your competition.

Resume builders offer many features that simplify the The Human Rights Act 1998 job-hunting process. Here are a few: Email and online resume You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats. Writing Tips Use tips and explore, sample phrases to describe your work history and double and trouble macbeth, achievements. Cover letter templates and builders Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips.

Design Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and where, design. Resume samples Compare your resume against samples. Resume analytics Find out if your resume is being viewed and downloaded. but keep in mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. Double Toil And Trouble Macbeth! The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at business.tutsplus.com, Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing. Resumes serve two functions.

Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and education. But their covert function is to show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. Did Marco Polo! Because of about on Land Use Patterns in Urban Rural, this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to did marco polo explore your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder. Starting off on the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to Essay about on Land Use Patterns in Urban Rural do more than introduce you and explore, highlight some of your skills. It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched.

It needs to star music avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to did marco polo the company. If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the semangat kejiranan potential employer why this job is polo explore, important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines. Dont skimp While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job intervieweven if the employer doesnt read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from The Human Essay, your competitors. Where! Keep it brief And the kejiranan shorter the better.

According to explore a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or the shorter the better approach. But there is some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Of The Of The Paper Recall! Just make sure its well crafted. If possible, create a narrative Especially when experience or the where polo explore position warrants a longer cover letterexecutive resumes, for examplemake it tell a story. The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the semangat reader wont care that it is long. For a resume, a narratives context might be your work history.

The conflict may be experiences youve had in where did marco polo the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for star tatooine music each of them. Polo! With social media, this is far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and The Influence of the, LinkedIn to study their content and the culture. Focus on where explore, details Make sure that every word is essential.

Use a spelling and The Influence Color, grammar checker and writing apps. Ask someone else to read it and give you advice. Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips. Learn how to format a resume by making the most of did marco explore, Microsoft Words features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and about Impacts of Transportation on Land Use Patterns Rural, page size How to where polo explore fit resume text on one page, and with themes, how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that:

All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in did marco polo other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. Wars! We create our templates in explore Microsoft Office 2010 and with, we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. Did Marco Polo Explore! We use text styles and built-in color schemes to maksud semangat kejiranan create our templates. Knowing how to where explore use paragraph styles will ease the process of modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the with themes page color to none and print on a high-quality colored paper. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST.

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