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A Sample Makeup Artist Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a makeup artist studio? If YES, here is a complete sample makeup artist business plan template and feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a makeup artist studio. We also took it further by unification of germany analyzing and drafting a sample makeup artist studio marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for makeup artist businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Why Start a Makeup Artist Business? Makeup artists are creative individuals who use cosmetics to apa source citation transform their clients depending on the occasion the unification of germany client needs the makeup for. Usually, makeup artists work by themselves which makes it sometimes difficult for apa source, their income to be regular, except they go into of germany certain niche areas such as carrying out makeups for models or becoming movie makeup artists. Either way, a makeup artist in order to in Richard Cory Essay create a sustainable flow of unification income will need to be in as much niches as possible.

While this might be an artistry kind of task, making a business out of of Genome Maintenance Essay it would require following certain business rules just like any regular kind of business. Another important aspect that must not be overlooked is a business plan. A business plan is unification of germany, very vital as it forces the entrepreneur to take a feasibility study of the business he or she intends to go into and determine if it would be worth going into it. Irony In Richard Cory Essay. While writing a business plan might seem difficult and intimidating for a creative individual, there are two options available to unification you. You can hire a business plan writer to write one for you for a fee, but If however you are running on The Importance Essay a tight budget, there are free business plan templates online that you can use in writing a comprehensive business plan for yourself. In fact, below is unification of germany, a sample makeup artist business plan template. A Sample Makeup Artist Business Plan Template. The social media and technology has caused evolutionary trends in descartes mediations beauty and this has made it easier for makeup artists to of germany not only when begin? re-invent looks but also create innovative ideas, making the of germany industry a fast-paced one.

Makeup artists prepare actors for performances and also create special makeup effects. Asides this, makeup artists also work in the fashion industry. Lots of opportunities exist in Los Angeles, New York, Chicago and Miami. As at 2012, we had about 3,000 makeup artists, and most were employed by the motion pictures and television broadcasting industries. However, most of those who are employed are also self-employed, as their jobs usually last for Not Taken examples, a short period of time. To become a professional makeup artist, training in unification of germany a school of cosmetology is required and this can last between several months and a year. According to of Genome Maintenance Essay the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of makeup artists will grow slowly through 2022, when compared to other occupations. The reason for unification, this slow growth has been attributed to the fact that most makeup artists, especially those in The Importance the motion picture industries are being replaced by Computer Generated Imagery (CGI). According to Makeup artists and hairstylists guild, as at 2014, makeup artists averagely earned $44,310, with most paid hourly. Makeup artists who however worked in mortuaries earned 22% higher salaries than their counterparts in other industries. Makeup Artist Business Plan Executive Summary.

Shaes Touch Studios is a national and international makeup studio that is unification of germany, located in Bay Island California here in the United States of America and intends to cater to corporate and domestic clients. We intend to offer makeup services and trainings to our clients, as well as other services in our line of business. We are in business to not only apa source citation make profit but also to of germany compete favorably with similar business (startups or established) here in California and also all over generator, the United States of America. Our vision is not only to meet the unification of germany expectations of Essay our clients and exceed it but also to become a national and international brand by of germany the year 2019. We intend to citation generator not only concentrate on our core offering; this means that we would be offering other services that are intended to unification of germany boost our income and make us have a healthy bottom line in which to when did feudalism begin? sustain our business.

Our promotional strategies are top notch as we already have a popular channel on YouTube where we give tips and advice to our audience. We also give out trainings to our international clients. Our customers are very important to us and so we intend to leave them fully satisfied with our services. We would be offering discounts and incentives intended to keep our loyal customers with us while also luring away clients from our competitors to us. We have built a solid business structure because we intend to start with as few hitches as possible. We have sourced for competent and unification of germany, qualified staff who understand the business thoroughly and will do all they can to ensure that we get to the top. Essay Examples. Our staff are the best in the field. We have the best welfare packages for our employees better than what their counterparts are getting in of germany similar startups such as ours. We also offer several other incentives to our employees as this is an effective way of ensuring that they remain motivated and dedicated to helping us achieve our goals and objectives. Our Chief Executive Officer, Ms.

Shae Lannister is a renowned makeup artist who has made up several celebrities both here in California and other states as well. She has several certifications and is always pushing herself to achieve more. She therefore understands what paths we need to follow to help us get to diagram the top and achieve all our corporate goals and objectives. Shaes Touch Studios intends to unification deliver to its customers various services and products from its primary location here in Bay Island California. Even though our core source of income is making up our clients, we intend to consult for when, our clients and unification, also train them as well. All the different services that we intend offering and the profits to be made from them are all under the did feudalism permissible laws of the United States of unification America. Below are some of the Irony in Richard Essay services we intend to offer and the products we intend to sell;

Offering of makeup services (for weddings, special occasions, on movie sets) to our various clients Sale of our own makeup products produced by us Distributing for unification of germany, branded products Trainings Consultancy and advisory services. Our vision is to descartes mediations ensure that we not only meet but exceed the expectations of unification of germany our clients no matter what those expectations are. We also intend to become a national and international brand by descartes the year 2019. Unification Of Germany. In achieving our vision, we intend to hire creative makeup artists who are also instinctive and understand what it is our clients want, and ensure that they get what it is they want. Having a solid business structure is very important to our business and we take it very seriously because we know that this would allow us start and run our business with as few hitches as possible. Our plans are to generator run a standard makeup studio and so we intend to get it right from the beginning so that things can flow seamlessly, and that is unification, why we are looking to employ only the best to work with us in The Importance of Genome Essay our makeup studio. Because of the standard that we have set for unification, ourselves, we are willing to mediations ensure that we employ competent and hardworking staff who understand our business specifically and the industry at large so as to take our business from where we are to where we ought to be. Also, the staff we employ must be dedicated and ensure that they communicate our brand positively at unification all times. However, due to the fact that we are going to be offering varied services more than a regular make-up business, we intend to hire more staff than conventional to internet diagram be able to handle the unification of germany various positions and tasks that is likely to crop up during the course of running our business.

Shaes Touch Studios will go all out to ensure that our business structure is internet, solid. Below therefore is the business structure that we intend to of germany build at Shaes Touch Studios; Chief Executive Officer Admin Manager and The Importance, Human Resources Production Manager Makeup Director Quality Assurance Manager Accountant/Cashier Marketing and Sales Executives Front Desk Officer Store Manager Cleaner Driver. Unification. Roles and Responsibilities. Takes key decisions and actions that would affect the overall growth and sustainability of the business Ensures that organizational policies are effectively implemented Drafts the budget and ensures that it achieves full implementation Meets with valuable clients on internet diagram behalf of the company.

Admin Manager and Human Resources. In charge of ensuring that all the administrative functions of the business run smoothly Recruits competent employees on behalf of the of germany studio Ensures that employees receive great welfare packages and also undergo trainings as at descartes when necessary. In charge of unification certain projects undertaken by the studio Ensures that the brand makeup produced by the studio is standard industry-wise. Internet. In charge of all makeup artists in the studio Creates and sources for profitable niches on behalf of the company Is updated on unification industry trends so as to meet and exceed the expectations of The Road Essay clients. Quality Assurance Manager. Ensures that make-ups gotten are of high standard Liaises with brands and ensures that the company gets the best deals. In charge of preparing account and financial statements on unification of germany behalf of the firm Ensures that tax documents are accurately prepared and sent to the right authorities Ensures that the books of the company are reconciled with that of the bank and that all details are correct. Marketing and Sales Executives.

Conducts market research to The Road Not Taken determine new target markets on behalf of the company Drafts and implements effective marketing strategies on behalf of the company Conducts one on one marketing and unification of germany, sales on Irony behalf of the company. Attends to of germany all enquiries, bookings, complaints and descartes, feedbacks from clients Should be updated on industry trends and organizational policies so as to offer clients accurate information Keeps an accurate and unification, updated customer database on behalf of the of Genome Maintenance company. Ensures that all the products are intact and of germany, accounted for begin?, Ensures that the store remains well ventilated and secured at all times Ensures that light repairs and maintenance are carried out as at when due. Ensures that the premise is kept clean at all times Ensures that cleaning supplies are always in of germany stock Carries out any other duties as might be determined by the administrative manager. Helps deliver and supply products to the studio Carries out light maintenance on the vehicle when and internet, where necessary Carries out any instruction by the human resources manager. Makeup Artist Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Of Germany. Due to our intention of ensuring that we run a standard makeup business, we have engaged the internet diagram finest business consultants here in Bay Island California to help look through our business concept and determine how likely we are to succeed in the business we intend starting. Unification Of Germany. The business consultant looked through using a popular analysis that allows businesses know how likely they are to survive in the business they are going into and how favorably they would compete against competitors in the same industry, In view of this, our strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats we were likely to be exposed to while starting our business here in Bay Island California as well as all over internet, the United States of America, were judged. Below is the result of the SWOT analysis that was thoroughly conducted on behalf of Shaes Touch Studio. Unification. Our strengths lie in the fact that we are offering several makeup services at the same time to our various customers, allowing us to meet the diverse needs of our customers.

All our makeup artists are not only well trained but have professional certifications as well, which means that we are more than likely to not only when did feudalism begin? met but exceed the unification expectations of our customers, because we are able to handle whatever requests they may have. Our other staff are also competent, dedicated and understand that we do not only want to be a national brand but an international one as well, and are working hard to The Importance of Genome Essay ensure that we achieve this. We have great welfare packages for unification, our employees leading them to remain motivated to our brand and also ensuring that our customers retain loyalty to citation generator our brand through the attitude of our staff. Also, our chief executive officer is not only very experienced but has the necessary contacts that will help us quickly achieve our objectives. We are a relatively new business and as such we have not yet gained much depth into unification the market as we would have liked.

We also do not have all the staff or the finances necessary to when did feudalism begin? deliver all the services we hope to deliver. Makeup is of germany, used for a variety of purposes from weddings, occasions to movies and so much more, and did feudalism begin?, so there are many opportunities available for us in this industry as more target markets that would require our services are yet to be tapped into by us. Also, the growing economy means more people will be willing to unification of germany patronize our services or buy products from us. Of Genome Essay. There are several threats that we face as a growing company such as an of germany arrival of a major competitor to the same location we are operating from when did feudalism begin?, leading to a reduction in the number of customers we are likely to have. Also, an unification of germany economic downturn is likely to The Importance of Genome be a threat to our businesses because this would mean more people trying to apply makeup themselves than approaching a professional to unification of germany help them out. Makeup Artist Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Makeup is not really a new occupation as it has existed from time past, the only difference now is when did feudalism, that it has become an occupation where makeup artists have to not only unification of germany learn to descartes recreate looks and make their clients into what they want to be but also ensure that their clients are satisfied and have their expectations not only met but exceeded. Also, due to the different seasons, makeup artists have to learn appropriate make-ups for each season as well as occasion. California is a glamorous place because most celebrities reside here, from movie stars to unification of germany artistes and other kinds of celebrities and internet diagram, so would always require the services of make-up artists for unification of germany, whatever reason.

This would require any makeup artist intending to start in the California area to network and partner with some fashion designers so as to get the needed clients. Finally, technology has come to play a huge role in the makeup industry as makeup artists can try out makeup shades on faces in the computer and know which look might likely fit their client before meeting the client. This has led to a high level of satisfaction for both parties. Almost everyone uses makeup especially for special occasions, events and other purposes and therefore require the services of a make-up artist to be able to get the look they want. While women might chiefly look like our target market, but we cannot restrict our target market to just this group. In view of this, we have conducted a market research in order to fully understand the market we intend entering and The Road examples, what we should expect from of germany, our target market, while also having an idea of what they would be expecting from us. When. To this effect, we therefore are in business, from our findings to unification of germany offer our services to the following group of people; Celebrities Actors and Irony Cory, actresses Children Movie stars Brides And every other uncategorized target market. Our Competitive Advantage. We understand the power of makeup and our intention is therefore to build a business that is not only a national brand but an international brand as well. Our intention is to become the unification preferred company for our target market not only here in Bay Island but all over California as well as the whole United States of America. Essay. To however achieve this, we have several competitive strategies in mind.

We are going to be offering diverse services in our Makeup Studio, this means that we would not only make customers up for weddings, special occasions, on movie sets but we will also sell products that our clients can use and unification, also offer trainings and consultancy services as well. Another competitive advantage we have is the vast experience of our management team. Irony In Richard Cory. This experience is unification, highly necessary as it means that all the internet management staff understands how to of germany help make our brand the best not only nationally but also internationally. Our management staff also understands our corporate foundation and culture and will do all it can to ensure that this culture is understood and implemented by the lower end staff. Another competitive advantage is the fact that our customers expectations are not only met but exceeded as well, leading to high customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. Lastly, our employees are also our internal customers and apa source generator, are treated right because this would make them remain motivated and dedicated to the company. We ensure that our employees are well paid and that they have other benefits that make them better than their counterparts in similar industry such as ours all over the United States of America.

Makeup Artist Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Shaes Touch Studio just like any other business has been established with the sole intention of making profit that will be used in growing and sustaining the business here in Bay Island California and also all over the United States of America and even beyond our countrys borders. We therefore intend to generate income by offering the following services and selling the following products; Offering of makeup services (for weddings, special occasions, on movie sets) to our various clients Sale of our own makeup products produced by us Distribution of branded products Trainings Consultancy and advisory services. Everyone makes up, but the usage might defer depending on unification of germany the preference of the individual and the occasion; this therefore means that there will always be demand for either makeup products or makeup application services. California is a dream place for any makeup artist as not only are there more glamorous individuals here, there are also more celebrities, which means that we are optimistic of meeting our set target within eight months of starting and growing our business, due to the strategic location which we selected. After critically examining this industry and our chances of making it, using several data and apa source, assumptions from similar start-ups such as ours; we were able to come up with the unification of germany following sales forecast. Below therefore are the examples likely projections that we have determined for Shaes Touch Studios based on several facts and data that were made available to unification us; N.B : It should be noted that the projections done by us were based on what is Maintenance, obtainable in of germany the industry as at internet the time the of germany data and assumptions were gathered from similar businesses such as ours.

The assumptions used were that we would not experience any major economic meltdown that will allow less patronage from our customers and that there wont be an arrival of any major competitor in the same location we are offering our business. Should any of the assumptions change, it would have an effect on the figures posted which could either result into an increase or decrease. While generating capital and choosing a suitable location for our makeup business is descartes, highly important, marketing is also very important as well because if we do not thoroughly market our business, we would not only fail to attract customers to patronize our services but we would also not generate revenue to grow and sustain our business. Of Germany. Marketing not only generates revenue and brings in more customers for a business, it is also a way of ensuring that the company is positively communicated to the public and The Importance of Genome Essay, can also effectively compete against its competitors in the industry. Because of how serious this aspect of business is, we have hired a marketing consultant who is of germany, not only reputable but who has vast experience regarding our type of business in Essay order to help us conduct thorough market research that would allow us penetrate the market. The information gotten would then be used to structure our business in such a way as to attract the customers we need. Unification. The marketing consultant will help us develop our marketing strategies so that we will be able to attain our goal of not only penetrating the market but getting a huge chunk of the Irony Cory Essay target market to patronize our brand and services. Unification Of Germany. We have also empowered our marketing and sales team to draft and modify effective marketing strategies that will help deliver our corporate sales goals. This way we would conveniently grow and sustain our business effectively.

In summary, below are the sales and marketing strategies that would be adopted by Shaes Touch Studios; Start by Irony throwing a mock make-up contest grand opening party in order to increase our awareness in the community where we intend starting our business. Unification. Introduce our makeup business to mediations corporate bodies, individuals and other stakeholders in the industry. Engage in direct marketing and sales. Of Germany. Encourage our loyal customers to refer our brand to others. Market our brand online via our social media platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Snapchat) as well as on our website and other related blogs. Ensure that we advertise Shae Touch Studios in local newspapers and magazines, and on The Road radio and television stations as well.

Makeup Artist Business Plan Publicity and unification, Advertising Strategy. Having the right publicity is very paramount to our kind of business and this involves exploring all the means necessary via conventional and Cory Essay, unconventional methods. Ensuring that we get the unification right publicity for our business so that we could effectively compete with brands whilst also becoming a force to reckoned with in the industry; has led us to hire a brand consultant. The brand consultant who has a vast knowledge of citation generator how to promote businesses such as ours will help develop publicity strategies that will deliberately project our brand and ensure that our target market are easily able to differentiate our brand from that of our competitors. The publicity and unification, advertising strategies will also help to effectively communicate our brand to our intended audience. Below are the platforms we intend leveraging on Irony Cory Essay in order to promote and advertise Shaes Touch Studios; Use social media platforms such as Instagram, Snapchat, Facebook and Twitter to promote our business Use Youtube to showcase our training sessions so as to attract more customers Attend several conventions and unification of germany, participate in several seminars in order to promote our brand Throw contests online in Not Taken order to promote our brand Ensure that our staff members wear our companys customized tee-shirts either in the store or during field work Distribute our handbills and of germany, fliers in strategic locations.

Our Pricing Strategy. Setting the right rates for our products and services is very important because not only do we want to be affordable to our target market but we also intend to boost our bottom line sufficiently to enable us sustain and grow our business. This means that the rates we would set for our services will be one that will take a whole lot of factors into consideration such as location, our overhead and running expenses, as well as what our competitors are offering. However, because we are relatively new to the market, we intend to offer discounted rates for our products and services for the first three months of operations. This is when did feudalism, intended to attract more customers to our business during these months. After taking a careful look at what our overhead and running expenses would be for these three months, we are optimistic that even though we would generate less revenue, we would not be running at a loss during this period.

Because we intend to cater to unification diverse customers, we have come up with payment options that would suit all our various customers preferences here at Shaes Touch Studios; Therefore, the payment options that we will make available for all our customers are; Payment via cash Payment via check Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online payment portal Payment via credit card. The above payment options were carefully chosen by us and will work with no hitches for our customers whilst also allowing us achieve our intended goals. Every business that is a start-up requires capital in order to run the when did feudalism begin? business and acquire the standard it intends for its business. Whilst capital generation is key, deciding where to spend the bulk of the capital is also important. Therefore the of germany bulk of our capital will be used to pay the salaries of our employees, pay utility bills and also to lease a facilityl. The key areas where we will therefore spend our start-up capital on are; Total fee for registering the business in the United States of America $750 Fees for diagram, obtaining licenses and permits, accounting software and specialized certifications $2,250 Cost of hiring business consultants $3,000 Marketing and of germany, promotion expenses for the grand opening of the makeup studio as well as general marketing expenses $7,000 Insurance coverage (general liability and workers compensation) $2,000 Operational expenses for the first 4 months (salaries of employees and payment of utility bills) $120,000 Cost of internet diagram leasing a facility for at least 1 year and unification of germany, carrying out renovations $30,000 Cost of internet start-up inventory (professional makeup kits) $15,000 Cost of store equipment (cash register, racks, security and signage) $5,000 Other start-up expenses including stationery and furniture $2,500 Cost of purchasing a fairly used van $15,000 Cost of launching a website $500 Cost of throwing an opening party $5,000 Miscellaneous $5,000.

From the above analytical breakdown, it is obvious that we would require the sum of $213,000 in order to successfully startup and unification, run a makeup business here in Not Taken examples Bay Island California. It should be noted that the amount is huge due to the different services we intend to offer. Also, the bulk of the capital will go into paying salaries of unification our employees and utility bills for at least 4 months. Generating Funding/Startup Capital for Shaes Touch Studios Business. Shaes Touch Studios is examples, a business owned and of germany, run 100% by Ms. Shae Lannister, a professional make-up artist. Ms. Descartes Mediations. Shae has no intentions whatsoever to bring in any external partners to of germany run the business with her. This has led her to restrict the sourcing of her capital to three major sources. The Importance. Below are the sources where Ms.

Shae intends to source her start-up capital from; Generate part of the start-up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from of germany, friends Apply for loan from the commercial bank. N.B : Ms. Shae has been able to gather the sum of $50,000 from her personal savings. Essay. She got the sum of $13,000 from friends and has the sum of $150,000 approved by the bank after several documents were signed to unification that effect. The loan is to be repaid in 7 years at the rate of 3%. The amount is of Genome Essay, due to unification of germany be credited to mediations her business account before the week runs out. Makeup Artist Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Every serious entrepreneur starting off their own business do so with the intention of not only making profit and competing fairly against its competitors but also remaining in business for as long as possible. To ensure that a business is sustained and eventually grows, there are a number of factors that would need looking into such as the loyalty of customers, the unification re-investment strategy of the citation generator business and its business structure. Customers are the reason a business exists and generates revenue especially a service oriented business, and so we know how valuable our customers are and what to do to ensure that we retain at least 80% of unification those who patronize our services. We also know how beneficial it is to reward our loyal customers especially those who refer us to others.

We have discount programs in place for our loyal customers and several other incentives that will ensure that we grab a huge share of the market. Our motto is to not only know what our clients want and Irony in Richard, meet these needs but to positively exceed their expectations. We would be offering different services in order to cater to our diverse clients so as to boost our earnings and increase our bottom line. To this effect, we intend to take strict measures by unification of germany re-investing a percentage of our earnings back into the business. This is a sure way of ensuring that the business is adequately sustained.

Finally, we know how important having a solid business structure is and how it would allow us have as less hitches as possible when we start off our business and to this effect, we have sourced for qualified and competent hands to handle the various tasks that we would assign them. Our staff are not only proficient but they have identified with our corporate mission and vision and are committed to ensuring that we achieve our corporate goals and objectives. We intend to take great care of our staff pay them better than their counterparts in similar start-ups such as ours. We believe that these three factors will by no means help in our sustainability and expansion objectives. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of apa source Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for business license and unification of germany, permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Application for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of descartes Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Marketing/Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and around the of germany community: In Progress Health and Safety and The Road Not Taken Essay, Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party/launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors wholesale suppliers/merchants: In Progress Purchase of trucks: Completed.

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Unification of Germany - Wikipedia

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The Unification of Germany 1864-1871 - History Home

IELTS Essay Ideas: Is History a Waste of of germany Time. Below are ideas for the topic of history in IELTS writing task 2. This essay is about how important history is to learn. This can relate to descartes mediations, the subject of history as a whole or children spending time learning history. You should use the ideas given below and adapt them to the specific essay question given by of germany IELTS. Sample IELTS Essay Question.

Some people think that studying history is a waste of time while others think that it is essential to learn. Citation! Discuss both sides and give your opinion. Below are ideas for both side of the argument. Unification! A useful definition of history is it is the study of past events, particularly human affairs.. It might be the study of a country or of internet diagram a person in the past. It might involve a particular event or a general situation at a given time in the past. History is unification of germany a Waste of Time. Most people memorise dates, names and facts when they study history.

This information is not useful in everyday life or for when did feudalism begin? the future. If we could actually learn from history, history wouldnt be full of the same repeated mistakes. However, the same mistakes are made again and again which makes history irrelevant to learn for unification the future. History is a subject that is descartes mediations rarely used in peoples lives so it would be better to focus on science or technology which is of germany more relevant to citation, the future and todays society. Each historical event has different perspectives. For this reason, it makes learning history a waste of time because events can also be interpreted in a different way which makes what we learn in unification of germany, history less valuable. Many school curriculum have been set and are rarely changed. Apa Source Generator! That curriculum includes little current history which is the only type of history that helps people understand the world they currently live in.

History helps young people understand their own culture and how their culture and unification of germany, country have evolved. History gives identify and helps unify people. It gives people a sense of roots and belonging. History teaches people what their forefathers experienced and mediations, suffered in the past in order to unification of germany, make their country what it is today. History teaches us about Essay examples travesties which have occurred in unification of germany, the past, such as the Holocaust. It is essential for both people in the past, present and future to never forget such events in order to The Importance Maintenance Essay, honour the memory of those lost and to ensure it never happens again. History helps us understand change. It records and helps people understand successes and unification, failures.

Through these studies people can learn about change and how others are affected by it. It shows patterns of behaviour or events in the past and their outcome which can help us avoid similar outcomes in the future. Learn about the past often gives a glimpse of the future. It shows a path of development that will continue past the present and into descartes mediations the future. Valuable information can often be found in of germany, history, such as traditional medicines. Learning about past lifestyles and techniques used by Cory Essay people in of germany, the past can hold the secrets to remedies or cures no longer used. If you wish to post writing, please read the rules for posting writing on this blog. I know you will not put the Cory, band score, but please can you tell me is this essay enough to get a band score 7. Traditional subjects such as History, Politics etc were taught in schools spending more time rather than spending on teaching interpersonal and soft skills which is of germany of greater use for students to find a good employment opportunities in future. Descartes Mediations! In my opinion, although spending a good time on teaching traditional subjects, but also giving an equal or more importance to unification, the skills could be a key solution to find a good job.

Firstly, History as a traditional subjects , in addition schools are the best way that our child to get to begin?, know about the past tradition, culture, ancient methods, languages as well as about our ancestors, for this reasons, traditional subjects should give more importance like any other subjects in schools.Knowing more about our culture, tradition, history is the unification, only way that we can uphold about descartes mediations our beliefs. However, due to the increased demand for the skills namely interpersonal and unification, soft skills such as mathematical, marketing etc which is required in all enterprises or in The Importance of Genome Maintenance Essay, a job market, I admit that by contrast, it is primary to unification of germany, teach the students about the internet diagram, skills in school in addition to the subject history or arts. Unification! One clear example, to illustrate here is when we are going for an interview the employer mainly look over the skills that the employee have rather than his knowledge about the traditional subjects because obviously, the employer s motive is the growth of the company. To summarize, I firmly believe that in school the teachers should give equal or either more importance to teach their students about the skills as it is the most important factor to find a good job. Even though it is good to have knowledge about the Cory Essay, tradition and culture. Is it good enough to get a score of 7? Please if you have time point out my mistakes. Sorry I dont give feedback or scores. But I will say, avoid using etc. Unification Of Germany! Just decide on two examples and thats enough.

I am jumbled up, if the when did feudalism, question is unification of germany what extend you agree or disagree?, and am agreeing that what should my paragragraphs constitute? your earliest reply will be highly appreciated. If you agree, then each paragraph gives one reason for your opinion. Hi Liz, how are you? I am Dario from Argentina and I will take the apa source citation, exam next Saturday. First of of germany all I would like to thank you for all the material, tips and exercises of the web. Secondly, if possible, I would like to to have a look on my essay and tell me what you think. Thanks in advance. So many times one can hear that the study of history is Irony pointless. Luckily, they are not the majority and other people still believe that history is one of the essential knowledges.

Narrow-minded people may think that the past is gone and unification of germany, what we are living now or going to live in the future has no link with it. They focus on begin? the future as it comes from unification of germany another planet or suddenly appears from underneath a rock. Did Feudalism Begin?! They do not really see that what happens today is because something happened yesterday, which change the course of the things, made people to take other decisions and choose different things than the unification, ones it would have chosen under other circumstances. Alternatively, still the descartes, most of unification people support and study history. History is sometimes crucial to understand what is going to happen, but also to prevent some things to descartes mediations, happen again, as the holocaust or wars. The same way everyone as individual makes mistakes, the society as a whole do it as well. History provides us the key to think and understand when, why, how and what happen anything and unification of germany, act consequently next time. It is also our collective memory, therefore historians have an important role in our society. In conclusion, although a small group of people try to diagram, reduce the importance of history it can be easily argued and demonstrated that is groundless. In my opinion, history is one of the most important (and exciting) topics in human sciences. Pliz help me madam,i have an assignment of history now i want u to help me on the same topic.why history as a subject should be taught in schools?

Pliz i need some points. All the ideas are given on this page. mam u need to give people ideas and unification, help instead of just telling them that all the ideas are on the page. The entire page above is a list of ideas for when begin? a topic. Please read them. Thankyou madam ..for everything.. To study history is like to live in past.Situations and unification of germany, circumstances changes from time to time.What was considered right in the past may be perceived as wrong in the present circumstances.In the generator, past nations were ruled by the king with absolute authority at their command and unification of germany, can be seen described as dictator. Dictator in of Genome Maintenance Essay, present age are not considered acceptable,so why to study previous kings.

hello mam . provide me with the ideas in the recent topic of ielts similarities are rising with same types of shops , products and brands all over the world . what are the merits and demerits of this this was the essay of ielts writing task 2 held on 26 th september 2015. Please see the recent questions page where some ideas have been shared. Im blessed that I found your blog at last. Ive already got Band score 6, but my goal is 8. Im excited to have your advanced lessons, but unfortunately Im not sure how I can pay for that from Bangladesh. Could you please have a look on my Introduction and advise me, pointing the mistakes I made, what I should do? Thanks in unification, advance.

Learning history is interesting and enjoyable. Studying history is prioritized by some as an effective subject although others argue against it as a waste of time. While studying history, it is possible to know about ancestors contribution on diagram this modern world and the mistakes they made, although memorizing dates and names, and lack of science or technology has no usefulness in of germany, future. Hi Liz, in writing, is it okay ti use contractions? Because in speaking, it contractions are preferred. And is it safe to use highfalutin vocabulary such as sojourn and etc for diagram writing task 2? No, never use contractions in unification, IELTS writing. Only use vocabulary that you can use with complete accuracy.

If I dont get wrong, there is a typo in did feudalism begin?, the third idea in the viewpoint History is important. History teaches us instead of use. You should think about unification of germany charging for The Road Not Taken examples your proof reading services #128578; Well spotted. Hi Liz, I want to write a balanced essay. Would this introduction will be fine? People have different views about whether or not learning history is vital in our daily lives. In my opinion, studying history has a signicant importance not only in the present but also in the future generation of our society. June 13 writing task 2: the statement given went something like this a huge number of accommodation and transportation facilities emerge in big cities nowadays thus the government is asking the business sectors to relocate their businesses in of germany, rural areas. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Thanks for sharing. I have watched a lot of when did feudalism begin? your videos on youtube to improve my writing skills.

You are doing well for unification of germany students. I aim 7 band score but you dont tell band scores. Irony In Richard Essay! please give me a hint how much more effort i need to achieve 7 band score. I personally think i dont have good vocabulary for unification of germany this task. Many people argue that gaining knowledge about when history is of germany useless but others believe that it is generator crucial to learn and study history in many aspects of our lives. It is quite understandable that different people have divergent attitudes towards it. In my opinion, learning history is the key to know about of germany our lives on did feudalism this planet and many more crucial things. People who think it is the wastage of time to learn history, have their own solid reasons.

Firstly, when people study history they remember many historical dates, incidents and places, which are useless in our practical life. Unification! Secondly, while studying history students spend a lot of their time to citation, know about past events instead of spending their crucial time for todays life. Unification Of Germany! Finally, after completing their study in history, they can not do any better for our community as chemists, mathematicians and Irony Essay, physicist do. On the other hand, many disagree with them by arguing that there are many advantages to learn history. Unification! For example, by citation generator learning history we will not repeat our mistakes that we made in the past.

Furthermore, we can plan, advise and make important decisions, give tributes to those who spend their important lives for unification human well beings on this planet, by learning history. To summarize, in my own view, though, some people consider learning history is the wastage of time but advantages are more obvious. Therefore, studying history should be encouraged rather than criticising. Dont put unnecessary information into your introduction. The Road Essay! The second sentence is unnecessary. Make sure you restate your opinion in the body paragraph with the side you agree with. Be careful with vocabulary wastage of unification time dont paraphrase unnecessarily and incorrectly. Please watch my video about paraphrase because you are making some elementary errors: Thanks for your reply Now i guess i need much more practice to get band score 7.

I am aiming for band 7 in writing general module. Could please check this piece of introduction writing will reach me to the requisite band or not. Thank you in advance. Some people think that the government is wasting money on the arts and that this money could be better spent elsewhere. To what extent do you agree with this view? I think this is Opinion essay(please suggest me that im on the right path or not?) It is Essay argued by unification some that spending money by diagram the government to encourage arts is of germany waste. Rather, it could be utilized on other developments. I completely disagree(what extent) with the given statement, because arts are also an inevitable activity to apa source citation, exhibit growth of nation. Please give me reply.. I do not offer a free marking service.

Did you read the rules for posting writing at the top of this blog? Im not sure why you have written what extent in brackets. That should be omitted. Also check your grammar and unification of germany, vocabulary. Always aim for accuracy. Sorry I posted it before read it and Essay, correct spelling mistakes . Here the unification of germany, corrected one . Many people argues about learning history .While some believe that studying past events particularly in humans affairs is merely a waste of time , others appreciate history as it is considered peoples roots . In my opinion , although I agree that peoples approach in studying history nowadays is wrong and lead to waste their time , I strongly support studying peoples past event which can helps peoples future . With regard to the importance of studying history , history studies give people identity and help to unify generation . In other word , when people learn about their culture , language and their forefathers lives they can understand from in Richard Cory Essay where they came and to whom they belong which gives them strength and unification, more confidence to sustain and succeed in futures obstacles.

Moreover , history studies help people To know about all events , experiences and even wrong and right decisions have been taken and their outcomes which can benefits young generation to be a ware of these mistakes and manage to avoid any similar situation in the future to evolve countries in better and accelerated ways . For instance , people in the past they were non educated and simple therefore ,when a pregnant mother giving birth they used to make it done at home without any medical supervision which lead to either mothers death or babys disorder ,but todays mothers have learned from The Road Essay this wrong decision and avoided it . On the unification of germany, other hand , many people think that studying history is a waste of time because most of schools curriculums teach student to mediations, memorize names and numbers related to historical event which are exhausting their energy rather than benefiting them in any side of life .In addition , history events have many perspectives which can be interpreted in different way , for this reason it make studying history a waste of of germany time because their is no approved knowledge can be learned and used in presents lives . For example , studying about the holocaust and its causes ,there is Not Taken Essay no any good aspect of studying about this historical event . In conclusion , I strongly support learning history but just the important and unification, beneficial events which enrich people experiences as well as their understand of did feudalism begin? life , at the same time avoid wasting time in learning worthless details. Sorry I only give comments to students who have worked their way through my lessons. Please review all writing task 2 lessons and unification, all vocabulary lessons. I am sorry I know I have a big problem in my writing , I will take arrest of writing essays and when begin?, read throw your blog to learn more then will come back in better skills . if you have time can you please check my essay. some people think that studying history is a waste of time while others think that it is essential to learn. discuss both sides and give your opinion.

History is unification a record of Not Taken past events .Many people argue that learning history has no use in our daily life whereas ,others say that it must be learned by everyone.This essay would discuss either to study or no the subject called history. To begin with, it is true that memorising past events , dates ,times and unification, peoples name has no particular importance in our day to day life, on The Importance the other hand studying science and technology is todays need. Unification! In order to be a competent we should be always up to date with science and technology , to illustrate this view ,employers are seeking for employees who are equipped with sound skills to perform in sophisticated world.Therefore,studying history is seriously a waste of apa source citation generator time. Irony, no matter how important is history in everyday life, we ought to keep in mind that our present and future is linked to our past.Significantly, getting knowledge regarding past events would protect us from repeating the same mistakes again .For an example, studying world wars alarm us the effects it may bring to the world, if there is unification of germany anymore world war.Thus, school curriculum should include history . In conclusion, though history classes may contain irrelevant information which is not useful to examples, our life in of germany, my opinion , we indeed lean history because it can inspire , warn as well as protect our present and future to an extend. Firstly, you need to write over 250 words. You also need to put your opinion in the introduction as your thesis statement. Your opinion must be given in the body paragraphs and concluded as well.

The word irony is not a linking device to diagram, start a body paragraph for unification the other side. You should use on the other hand or By contrast. Avoid using we. Internet! There are some grammar and vocabulary issues. Try to of germany, review my model essays to learn more about writing for IELTS. Please read the rule for posting writing before posting again: First of all I would like to express my gratitude for what you are doing on your webside.

I would like to ask you if all of the topics developed about the Writting Task 2 are concerning the Academic IELTS? Thank you in advance! Yes, all topics can come in either the GT or academic test. The only difference is The Importance of Genome that GT essay questions are slightly easier. It is inevitable that as technology develops traditionally cultures must be last. Technology and tradition are incompatibleyou cannot have both together. Hi the best kind teacher Liz I am so happy for using your best website and my all sections are improving significanly after using your all tips and watching your video lessons. Of Germany! Please! Could you check this full essay and mark it in reality. But it has been written for another topic.

Thanks in advance! Best regards good luck in your job! In general, our world is becoming more and Not Taken, more technologically advanced as our existence requires ongoing progress. For many, this trend has been resulting in unification of germany, positive steps towards perfect lifestyle on our globe. However, as this development and tradition are controversial with each other, I strongly support that modern- technology is making traditional cultures be lost. Admittedly, the internet has revolutionized the modern world being catalizator for globalization as individuals from any corner of the world can have easy access to all the generator, information on the world Wide Web, world population have begun following the mainstream culture. While less-spoken language are getting vanished for example, English is widening area and being used almost every aspects of life as a dominant language. Additionally, for the light of unification of germany convenience in Irony Cory, transportation, immigration that has become popular, made peoples preference of clothing, food, behavior and of germany, even customs similarly. Essay Examples! We eat fast-food and Pizza, wear T-shirt, and unification, listen to rock and roll or baroque music as those living in Europe, Asia or Australia. Diagram! And this is the circumstance that our globe is unification becoming a small village in which diversity cannot survive.

However, a number of internet diagram gadget eased researches work investigating historical places or origions of living creatures. Complex and sophisticated tools are being used to detect and even record traditional music, as well as art so that these values can be transmitted to upcoming generations. Nowadays, computer modeling of mankinds development is being created so precisely that cannot be achieved by humans calculations. To conclude, life enhancing technologies are being discovered inevitably because of humanitarian instinct. These steps might be improving our global lifestyle outwards, my view is that they are harming our heritage and traditional values inwards. your lessons excellent.Im so impressed thanks. Guys my whats app +998945900191. your lesssons excellent.Im so impressed thanks guys my whats app +998945900191. Hi, Im a student and new here in your website. Ive a difficulty in understanding the of germany, Essay topic, especially its type. It would be great of you if you recommend me.

Thanks in advance! If you look at this page, you will find sample essay questions for each type at of Genome, the bottom of the unification of germany, page: and on The Road Not Taken Essay this page, you will find model essays for each type of question: Dear Teacher.Myvefforts for your appraisal and comments that would be valuable to me thank you. Introduction;By few number of population era is that,learn about past event is usless,on the other hand of population has a positive suggestion regarding learning about unification of germany past event that it must copulsary for everyone ,so they could be able to know their past mistake and Not Taken examples, right steps towards compeletion their goals. Conclusion;according to my opinion learning about pastevents its usefull significantly for the new generation so we could able to learn about past mistakes and can uttilized the unification of germany, previous mistake in a affirmative aspects.

I already posted a comment to you previously. Generator! Unfortunately, your English level is of germany below the level accepted on this blog. you would no longer bother me and my posting. I will try to make slef better. Work on your English. This is an English language test. If your English is weak, your score will be low.

Sure Teacher i will follows your all advice . I hope one day i would be better than now. Thank you for your considerations. Here is my Introduction Part for The Road Not Taken Essay the above statement, Would you please review my introduction as well as check any mistakes. Thanks in advance.. Some people think that studying history is a waste of time while others think that it is essential to learn. Discuss both sides and give your opinion. It is unification matter of dispute that learning history is a waste of time and it is very important to learn history. Learn about the Irony Cory, past often gives a glimpse of the future.

I personally believe that it is of germany our duty to know the real history. Its good. The only Not Taken examples, thing I would change is a bit of grammar: It is matter of unification dispute whether learning history is a waste of time or is very . Also dont forget to use gerunds learning rather than Learn. The Importance Of Genome Essay! You might need to unification, review your English grammar if you are aiming for band 7 or above. I am sure that you are doing awesome about preparation to take IELTS exam. Descartes! It is very helpful for unification of germany me.

I am just asking you about General Training Writing Module. Is there any differences in Writing Task 2 between Academic and General Training module. I mean General Training Writing is bit easy rather than Academic one. Would you please tell me is there any differences or not? As you said, the GT writing task 2 essay questions are often easier and internet diagram, also there is unification of germany more flexibility with less formal language. But those are the only differences. Everything else is the same so all lessons and tips on citation this blog can be used by GT students. Now I Understand. Hi! the best kind teacher Liz. Thanks a lot for first of all, and of germany, your best Website that can lead to learn English very well.

I have learnt immense of tips which are very useful. Could you check my introduction please! In our modern era, people have different views about learning our previous time. In my opinion, i believe that gathering enough knowledge about history can open the door to avoid not making past mistakes and lead bright future. The word history cant be paraphrased by our previous time. Dont paraphrase unless you are completely sure because you are increasing the number of mistakes. More mistakes = lower score. Actually this was my task 2 in my exam, but I got shocking 5 in writing so it deteriorated my general score to 6 also make it worthless because I need minimum 5.5 in each skill for the conditional acceptance of the master degree. I can reset the exam before 3 months, do you advice in remarking the writing section? it will take two months plus 100 $.

Are examiners put 5.5 or 6.5 so on when they marking each task or just 5 or 6 or 7? Thanks for your time in advance, When you get a remark, it will be on all 4 skills. The examiner decides 6.5 or 7 as an average mark of the Maintenance, scoring for of germany each criteria. Of Genome! Judging from unification of germany your message to me, your level of internet English is unification of germany around 5.5. You have frequent errors in grammar. You should get your writing assessed before trying for either a remark or doing the test again. If your English isnt strong, your score wont be high.

I have the form for internet remarking and I can choose which section to be remarked, also the payment is fixed for one or four skills. I just was asking whether in unification of germany, writing each task the marks are band 5,6,7.. When Did Feudalism Begin?! or it can be 5.5,6.5. See this page (theres a table at the bottom of the page) to unification of germany, learn how the writing score is The Importance of Genome calculated: Hope you are well . Just want a piece of advice . Of Germany! I am planning to sit for ielts . which centre do you recommend , British council or idp ? I heard that examiners in BC are stricter than those in idp and in Richard Cory Essay, that examiners in idp are more lenient than those in Bc . what do you recommend and how could I ask for headsets for listening test . Of Germany! Thanks a lot . Appreciate your help . Examiners from BC and IDP are trained in the same way, follow the same questions and also following the internet diagram, same marking criteria. There should be no difference. You must get in touch with your local test center to find out if they use headphones for listening. Many students prefer headphones, so definitely check that. hope you are well and at your best . You have triggered our imagination by this new topic .Aptly , I responded and hope that you could comment on this answer and score it . Wish you all success and eternal happiness . It has been argued by some that studying history is beneficial while others contend that benefits gained from learning history are indisputable . Personally , I believe that history is intrinsic for forming ones national and unification, cultural identity and , therefore , should be taught and boosted . On the one hand ,it is thought the impact and outcomes of studying history are not as essential as those of in Richard Essay science and technology . An example illustrating this in unification of germany, action is descartes mediations that it is physics that has led man to Earth and even space , not history . Equally importantly , though it is the unification of germany, study of biology and chemistry which has resulted in eliminating and treating diseases , not history . Thereupon , time and efforts should not be addressed learning history and , instead , should be directed to the most influential subjects . In other words , the contributions of History are marginal and therefore studying it is considered a waste of time. On the other hand , advocates argue that the benefits of descartes mediations studying history could never be ignored or trivialized for a couple of reasons . Firstly , Through studying history , an early deepened sense of belonging and patriotism within children is created . secondly , through examining the feats and of germany, misdeeds or the Maintenance, rise and fall of of germany our ancestors , a lot of lessons and manners could be derived to diagram, help people to promptly tackle future ambiguities . In my opinion , I believe that history bears within printed pages and chronicle inscriptions the cultural identity of a country which could be seriously distorted and weakened if history is unification of germany not aptly taught and passed to all generations .Equally importantly , though studying history creates sense of nationalism and pride . Take the history of ancient Egypt which is a taught under the theme Egyptology , it brings pride to descartes, all Egyptians all the world over . In conclusion , it is indisputable that the benefits of learning history outweigh the drawbacks . If teaching history id given its due time and efforts , culture and good manners of our ancestors will be aptly reserved and exquisitely passed to unification of germany, coming generations . I am sorry . Internet Diagram! I mean not beneficial in unification of germany, the first line of my introduction. Sorry, I forget to add check your punctuation.

Youve got issues with capital letters. You write well and have some very good vocabulary. You have agreed with history should be taught and is important. When Did Feudalism! Therefore, you should combine your opinion body paragraph with the discussion paragraph. But make sure you write On the unification, other hand, some people believe, and I agree, that . When Begin?! We generally only have a separate body paragraph for the opinion when you are presenting a view that agrees with neither side a balanced view. Of Germany! For this essay, it would be impossible. Im glad you included an example of descartes mediations Egyptology Im currently learning Egyptian history and I love it #128578; A good essay on the whole. Hope you are well . Unification! Thanks so much for mediations your nice pleasant comments comments . You have really been of a great help . Your comment that we have only of germany, body paragraph for mediations balanced opinion is so beneficial for me . Unification Of Germany! thanks again and it gives me pleasure that you are interested in Egyptology . Wish you all success and happiness . hello Liz, would you please have a look at my essay?

It is internet diagram considered by many people that learning about history is a time wasting, whereas others argue that studying history is valuable. Unification Of Germany! In my opinion, i believe that studying history is internet diagram extremely important in term of learning about culture , and science, medicine development. on the one hand,history is a subject that is rarely used in people s lives. Thus, it would be better to focus on science and technology, which is more relevant to the future. In other word, they should use the school time effectively, because students are loosing the motivation to study subjects like history that has no important role in day to day life.

For instance, most people memorize dates,names and facts when they study history. This information is of germany not useful for Irony Cory the future. on the other hand,history helps young people understand their own culture and how their culture and country have evolved. Unification Of Germany! For instance,immigrants to mediations, Canada must study the Canadian history to understand how this country evolved and will help to unify people in Canada. Furthermore,Valuable information can often be found in history, how science and medicine had developed over the years. This will help the of germany, scientists to discover new innovations that can improve people lives and health.For example,Nitrous oxide has been used for anaesthesia in dentistry from the citation generator, 18th century, nowadays scientists discover that such medication can be helpful to treat addictions.

In conclusion, although history has many information that not used today, studying history is unification of germany important for our present as will as for diagram our future. Dont forget to put your opinion in the body paragraphs as well with the side you agree with. Also check your linking devices spelling and academic linking because you have a few mistakes. Otherwise, its quite good. Thank you Liz for your advice i appreciated i am working on my writing for band 7 and your site is realy helpful. Today, Ill be posting a lesson about how to improve your sentences for of germany IELTS writing. Ive used sentences from your essay for the lesson (but not given your name). Please take a look at the lesson when its posted so you can learn from it. Hi Liz, that is great i cannot wait for this lesson , so i will learn from it . Thank you.

Hi liz, I wrote an essay that was very much close to the topic above and would like to humbly ask if my points were relevant and if ever, what band will you mark it.. Some people believe that history is The Importance Maintenance very important and we must study the past to understand the unification of germany, present. Others say that it has little or no use at all. Discuss both views and give your opinion. Today in our society, there are multitude of people who believe that the things that had happened in the. past have some connection in present time, thus studying history is of vital importance. However, this idea is Essay being contended by others who consider that history should be burried as it provides no relevance.

To begin, an unification argument put forward by some people is that allocating time to begin?, dig and study history is just a. waste of precious time. Unification Of Germany! It could be due to Not Taken Essay, the fact that learning and reviving some of past phenomena. do not really have any signficant benefits on our society, and maybe counterproductively, it will just bring back. sorrowful memories of the events that had happened at some point in the past. As an illustration, studying. how and why the Nazis executed thousand of Jews during the genocide era do no realy pose any contribution. to modern society. Of Germany! Instead, by reliving a piece of that history only brings back feelings of extreme lost and. depression. To put it in another way, some people believe that we should just focus on what is currently happening rather than dwelling on things that already happened and cannot be undone. However, there is a plausible theory that many hold, inculding myself, that in one way or another, history is the key to be enlightened regarding the state of our society in Not Taken Essay examples, this very moment.

Take for example the sensitive issue on unification of germany how racial equality was achieved amongst African-American in the West, and mediations, as a consequence, the idea of slavery, which was once part of the norm, is now considered strongly unethical in unification of germany, most societies. Thus, it it is really crucial for people to have knowledge regarding the past to understand the present. In conclusion, although the thought of embracing history does not really have direct and advantageous effects in our society, it is internet diagram still an essential component of peoples lives as it serves to give explantion about the way we are living today. Dont forget that the instructions ask you to discuss and give your opinion. Where is your opinion? You have only of germany, done half of what is asked. The Road! You must not ignore the instructions. Your opinion must go in the introduction, the body and unification of germany, conclusion.

Also, I wouldnt recommend using the Holocaust as an example of why people shouldnt study history. Its a very poor example. The Holocaust is when begin? a reason why people should learn history. I rarely comment on unification of germany the type of examples given but I think you need to plan more carefully. Also try to present equally well developed ideas which means keep your paragraphs more balanced. I have to admit that history topic is quite difficult for me. Also, I will definitely consider your suggestions. ^_^ Is it posible examiner could give cover latter instead of,complain,request,offering,job or something else. Hope for the reply. Yes, of course.

For the GT writing task 1 test, you could be asked to write a letter to apply for Maintenance Essay a position which explains where you saw the job advert, why you want the unification of germany, the position and what experience you have that is relevant. just now i red your rule of posting in which one sentence were very much appealed to that,WHAT BAND SCORE IS YOUR AIMi am going for GT. therefore,i ve plan for bnd score 8. So,in this regard what would be your best advice to me. hope for your kind consideration for my request ! looking forward to hearing from you. I dont give band scores.

But I will tell you that to The Importance Essay, get band score 8, you need to unification of germany, produce sentences that are mainly without any errors in in Richard Cory Essay, either grammar or vocabulary. Thats means excellent English. Do you have that level? If your level of unification of germany English is not high enough, you will have problems to get the score you want. Generator! Get your English assessed before you book your test. Please check my band score page to learn more about the requirements for each band score. Copy,thank you teacher.

Litering in the street. Conclusion and of germany, introduction i try that,which is asked by descartes mediations you befire. Your comments would Be valuable for me ti make myself better. Thanks a million for helpful ideas about the history. You are the best teacher. Here is my introduction; There are arguments that whether studying history is waste of time or not. Both views have their distinctive pros and cons. In my opinion, learning their past is of germany essential lesson for following reasons.

Heres the citation generator, improvement: There are different views as to whether studying history is valuable or not. Unification! In my opinion, I believe that history is essential to learn in terms of learning about culture, developing identity and taking responsibility for the future. Hope you are well. I am a frequent user of your site which helps me to develop various ideas about descartes IELTS and helps me to take my preparation. But I have still problem with the exact answer about the of germany, question for writing task 2 as to what extent do you agree or disagree.

Suppose there is a topic some people think that mixed school is of Genome better than single school. To what extent do you agree or disagree ? I am confused to write my thesis statement because there are many advantage and disadvantage for both and its really hard with write I am totally agree. I agree with mixed is better but I also think that single school has some advantage. So how could I paraphrase this opinion based topic ? Would you please help me ? If you want to write a balanced view, you will need to of germany, be very clear and specify your thoughts. Are single sex schools better for younger children? Or are single sex schools better for older children? Be clear and exact. Imagine someone asked you to write a law about types of schools how would you write that law? Thanks for reply but still I am problem.

I just wanted to know how I draw my thesis statement about it whereas I know I have agreement about mixed school. Begin?! but I want to tell something about single sex. Would you please make a thesis statement about this topic which will be really helpful to understand the real way of of germany making thesis statement in any kind of opinion based topic. To write a balanced view thesis statement requires a strong control and accuracy in English. I dont recommend you try. Your English is not strong enough. Instead, it would be better for The Importance Maintenance you to unification, just choose one side. Essay Examples! If your English language is weak and the examiner has problems understanding your ideas, your band score will not even get to band score 6. So, choose one side and aim for a higher score.

Current IELTS exam topics and questions: Share your IELTS test results. Useful Links for IELTS Line Graphs in WT1. WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for of germany September 2017. IELTS Writing Questions September 2017. Answer to descartes, yesterdays paraphrasing exercise 3. Hi, my name is Elizabeth (Liz). I'm an experienced IELTS teacher from the UK and a graduate of the University of London. I have been teaching for over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS.

I have taught in a number of countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and Vietnam, where I taught at unification of germany, the British Council.

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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: 4. The Introduction. The introduction leads the reader from a general subject area to a particular topic of unification, inquiry. It establishes the scope, context, and significance of the research being conducted by in Richard Cory Essay summarizing current understanding and unification, background information about the topic, stating the purpose of the work in the form of the research problem supported by a hypothesis or a set of descartes mediations, questions, explaining briefly the methodological approach used to examine the research problem, highlighting the potential outcomes your study can reveal, and unification, outlining the remaining structure and organization of the paper. Key Elements of the Research Proposal. Prepared under the direction of the Superintendent and by the 2010 Curriculum Design and The Road Not Taken Essay examples, Writing Team. Baltimore County Public Schools. Importance of a Good Introduction. Think of the introduction as a mental road map that must answer for of germany the reader these four questions: What was I studying? Why was this topic important to investigate?

What did we know about this topic before I did this study? How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding? According to Reyes, there are three overarching goals of a good introduction: 1) ensure that you summarize prior studies about the topic in a manner that lays a foundation for understanding the research problem; 2) explain how your study specifically addresses gaps in the literature, insufficient consideration of the topic, or other deficiency in when begin?, the literature; and, 3) note the broader theoretical, empirical, and/or policy contributions and implications of your research. A well-written introduction is important because, quite simply, you never get a second chance to of germany, make a good first impression. The opening paragraphs of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions about the logic of your argument, your writing style, the examples overall quality of unification, your research, and, ultimately, the validity of your findings and conclusions. Apa Source Citation! A vague, disorganized, or error-filled introduction will create a negative impression, whereas, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will lead your readers to think highly of your analytical skills, your writing style, and your research approach. All introductions should conclude with a brief paragraph that describes the organization of the rest of the paper. Hirano, Eliana. “Research Article Introductions in unification of germany, English for Specific Purposes: A Comparison between Brazilian, Portuguese, and English.” English for Specific Purposes 28 (October 2009): 240-250; Samraj, B. “Introductions in did feudalism begin?, Research Articles: Variations Across Disciplines.” English for Specific Purposes 21 (2002): 117; Introductions.

The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide. Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. Unification Of Germany! 63-70; Reyes, Victoria. Demystifying the Journal Article . Inside Higher Education. The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions for the reader: What is this? Why should I read it?

What do you want me to think about / consider doing / react to? Think of the structure of the introduction as an inverted triangle of information that lays a foundation for understanding the mediations research problem. Organize the of germany information so as to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the introduction, then narrow your analysis to mediations, more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at unification your research problem and the rationale for in Richard Cory Essay studying it [often written as a series of key questions] and, whenever possible, a description of the potential outcomes your study can reveal. These are general phases associated with writing an introduction: Highlighting the importance of the unification topic, and/or Making general statements about the topic, and/or Presenting an overview on current research on the subject. 2. Identify a research niche by: Opposing an existing assumption, and/or Revealing a gap in existing research, and/or Formulating a research question or problem, and/or Continuing a disciplinary tradition.

3. Place your research within the The Road research niche by: Stating the intent of your study, Outlining the key characteristics of your study, Describing important results, and unification, Giving a brief overview of the structure of the paper. NOTE: Even though the introduction is the first main section of a research paper, it is often useful to finish the when introduction late in the writing process because the structure of the unification of germany paper, the reporting and in Richard Cory, analysis of unification of germany, results, and the conclusion will have been completed. Reviewing and, if necessary, rewriting the introduction ensures that it correctly matches the descartes mediations overall structure of your final paper. II. Delimitations of the Study. Delimitations refer to those characteristics that limit the scope and unification of germany, define the The Road Not Taken examples conceptual boundaries of your research . This is determined by the conscious exclusionary and inclusionary decisions you make about how to investigate the unification research problem. In other words, not only should you tell the reader what it is diagram, you are studying and of germany, why, but you must also acknowledge why you rejected alternative approaches that could have been used to when did feudalism, examine the topic.

Obviously, the first limiting step was the choice of research problem itself. However, implicit are other, related problems that could have been chosen but were rejected. These should be noted in unification of germany, the conclusion of your introduction. For example, a delimitating statement could read, Although many factors can be understood to impact the likelihood young people will vote, this study will focus on socioeconomic factors related to citation, the need to work full-time while in unification of germany, school. The point is not to document every possible delimiting factor, but to highlight why previously researched issues related to the topic were not addressed. Examples of delimitating choices would be: The key aims and The Road Not Taken Essay examples, objectives of unification of germany, your study, The research questions that you address, The variables of interest [i.e., the mediations various factors and features of the phenomenon being studied], The method(s) of investigation, The time period your study covers, and Any relevant alternative theoretical frameworks that could have been adopted. Review each of these decisions. Not only of germany, do you clearly establish what you intend to accomplish in your research, but you should also include a declaration of in Richard, what the study does not intend to cover.

In the latter case, your exclusionary decisions should be based upon criteria understood as, not interesting; not directly relevant; “too problematic because. ; not feasible, and the like. Make this reasoning explicit! NOTE: Delimitations refer to the initial choices made about the broader, overall design of of germany, your study and should not be confused with documenting the limitiations of your study discovered after the research has been completed. ANOTHER NOTE : Do not view delimitating statements as admitting to an inherent failing or shortcoming in when did feudalism, your research. They are an accepted element of unification, academic writing intended to keep the reader focused on the research problem by explicitly defining the conceptual boundaries and scope of your study. It addresses any critical questions in the reader's mind of, Why the hell didn't the descartes author examine this? Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction : Your introduction should clearly identify the unification of germany subject area of Irony, interest . Unification! A simple strategy to follow is to use key words from your title in the first few sentences of the introduction.

This will help focus the introduction on the topic at the appropriate level and ensures that you get to the subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. Not Taken Essay! Establish context by providing a brief and balanced review of the of germany pertinent published literature that is available on the subject. Essay! The key is to summarize for the reader what is known about the of germany specific research problem before you did your analysis. Of Genome! This part of unification, your introduction should not represent a comprehensive literature review--that comes next. It consists of mediations, a general review of the important, foundational research literature [with citations] that establishes a foundation for understanding key elements of the research problem. See the drop-down menu under this tab for Background Information regarding types of contexts.

Clearly state the unification of germany hypothesis that you investigated . When you are first learning to write in this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to descartes, use a past statement like, The purpose of this study was to. or We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the. Why did you choose this kind of research study or design? Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to the problem studied. This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the introduction. IV. Engaging the Reader. The overarching goal of your introduction is to make your readers want to read your paper.

The introduction should grab the reader's attention. Strategies for doing this can be to: Open with a compelling story, Include a strong quotation or a vivid, perhaps unexpected anecdote, Pose a provocative or thought-provoking question, Describe a puzzling scenario or incongruity, or Cite a stirring example or case study that illustrates why the unification research problem is when begin?, important. NOTE: Choose only one strategy for engaging your readers; avoid giving an of germany, impression that your paper is more flash than substance. Freedman, Leora and Jerry Plotnick. Of Genome Maintenance Essay! Introductions and Conclusions. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Introduction. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper.

Department of Biology. Bates College; Introductions. The Writing Center. University of unification of germany, North Carolina; Introductions. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center.

University of Wisconsin, Madison; Introductions, Body Paragraphs, and Conclusions for an Argument Paper. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide . Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 63-70; Resources for Writers: Introduction Strategies. Program in Irony Cory, Writing and Humanistic Studies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sharpling, Gerald. Writing an Introduction. Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of Warwick; Samraj, B. “Introductions in Research Articles: Variations Across Disciplines.” English for Specific Purposes 21 (2002): 117; Swales, John and Christine B. Feak. Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Skills and Tasks . Unification Of Germany! 2nd edition.

Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2004 ; Writing Your Introduction. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University. Avoid the Dictionary Introduction. Giving the dictionary definition of words related to the research problem may appear appropriate because it is important to define specific terminology that readers may be unfamiliar with . However, anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and a general dictionary is not a particularly authoritative source because it doesn't take into descartes account the context of your topic and doesn't offer particularly detailed information. Also, placed in the context of a particular discipline, a term or concept may have a different meaning than what is found in a general dictionary. If you feel that you must seek out an authoritative definition, use a subject specific dictionary or encyclopedia [e.g., if you are a sociology student, search for dictionaries of sociology].

A good database for unification of germany obtaining definitive definitions of concepts or terms is Credo Reference . Saba, Robert. The College Research Paper. Florida International University; Introductions. The Writing Center. Internet! University of North Carolina. A common question asked at the start of any paper is, Where should I begin? An equally important question to ask yourself is, When do I begin? Research problems in the social sciences rarely rest in isolation from history. It is, therefore, important to lay a foundation for understanding the historical context underpinning the research problem. However, this information should be brief and succinct and begin at a point in time that illustrates the study's overall importance. Of Germany! For example, a study that investigates coffee cultivation and internet diagram, export in West Africa as a key stimulus for local economic growth needs to describe the beginning of exporting coffee in the region and establishing why economic growth is important.

You do not need to give a long historical explanation about unification coffee exportation in begin?, Africa. If a research problem requires a substantial exploration of the historical context, do this in the literature review section. In your introduction, make note of this as part of the roadmap [see below] that you use to describe the organization of your paper. Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide . Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 63-70.

Always End with a Roadmap. The final paragraph or sentences of your introduction should forecast your main arguments and conclusions and provide a brief description of the rest of the paper [a roadmap] that let's the reader know where you are going and what to unification of germany, expect. A roadmap is important because it helps the reader place the research problem within the The Importance of Genome context of their own perspectives about the unification topic. In addition, concluding your introduction with an explicit roadmap tells the reader that you have a clear understanding of the structural purpose of your paper. In this way, the roadmap acts as a type of citation generator, promise to yourself and to your readers that you will follow a consistent and coherent approach to addressing the research problem.

Refer to it often to help keep your writing focused and organized.

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A Day in the Life of a FedEx Driver. I have been a FedEx Home Delivery driver for a little more than three years. Of Germany. I am what is called a supplemental driver, meaning I work for a contractor who owns the vehicle I drive. Did Feudalism Begin?. I get paid by the day rather than the hour or by the stop, so no matter how long I work it is the same pay. Unification. Some days I get home around 5PM and some nights (around Christmas) it may be 10PM. On my typical day at FedEx (Tuesday-Saturday) I get up at Irony Cory, 4:30AM and of germany get ready for work.

I leave home shortly after 5 and gas up my van. When I get to the FedEx terminal around 5:45, I start scanning my packages and loading my van. I am one of the Cory, first drivers there on most mornings because I like to get the loading done and get dispatched as soon as possible. My route is typically about 150-170 miles and a normal day has me doing 75-80 stops. The way my FedEx route is set up, I take pressure off of other routes by unification, doing some of their stops. Thus my route changes slightly from day to mediations, day depending on where exactly I am running. Unification. When I am dispatched I collect my overview maps and turn by apa source citation, turn directions as well as a manifest for my stops.

I also get a spare scanner battery so if mine dies I won't have to return to the shop to get a new battery. When I get dispatched and on the road before 7:30AM, I am a happy camper. As you may imagine, dogs are a big part of the delivery driver's day. Unification Of Germany. Most are friendly -- though of course some are not. Citation. As I write this article I am recovering from a dog bite to my right leg and unification the dog is in quarantine with animal control. The dog was some kind of Cory, collie and unification a little bit taller than knee-high to me. I was trying to deliver a package to the home right as it was getting dark. The dog was frantic and did feudalism I could see he was scared of me as he ran and hid in the garage. While trying to ease the package to a spot near the garage but out of the unification of germany, path of any cars, the homeowner suddenly came out.

As soon as he spoke to me, the dog attacked me and of Genome Maintenance Essay bit me three or four times in the same spot on my leg. The homeowner was extremely nice about the situation and apologetic. I did not seek medical treatment but did call animal control at my boss's request so we could ascertain if the dog had rabies. In my only unification, previous serious dog attack, the homeowner thought it was funny and said the dog only ripped my pants and didn't bite me. I pointed out that a mystery of great proportions had taken place as I never saw pants bleed before.

His German shepherd tried to bite me again on mediations, a later date but I avoided him. I do get nipped from time to time by little ankle-biter dogs, Poodles can be a holy terror! But by and large, most dogs are barkers and not biters. Unification Of Germany. Many even come up with a ball or a stick in their mouth, wanting to play. I carry dog treats to give to all the The Importance Essay, dogs on my route whether they are friendly or not.

One dog even protects the delivery drivers who come to his house. This has happened to me on several occasions and to at least one other driver that I know of. The dog is a big male German shepherd and there is unification a female coon dog of some sort there as well. Not Taken Essay. The female wants to bite any visitors to the house. The big male escorts the unification, driver to the porch and back to the truck. When the female moves in to bite, the big male rolls her over Irony Cory Essay, like a football block. He won't bite her but he knocks her down every time to protect the driver. Dogs are not the only animals we contend with as delivery drivers. I have been chased by geese, roosters, goats and unification one bull who escaped his pasture. The Road Essay. I have been hissed at by cats and wolf-whistled at of germany, by some sort of talking bird inside a house.

I saw the pervert looking at when, me from inside his cage. What I enjoy about FedEx is meeting interesting people and unification learning about new places I have not seen in when did feudalism begin? my home state. I have delivered to plenty of people who work in NASCAR as drivers or crew, and even to cousins of mine who I didn't know existed until then. My pet peeves about being a delivery driver are people who don't put aggressive dogs in a pen and those who don't use address markings anywhere on their house. Unification Of Germany. We always find the house, but lack of an address marking can cause a delay of a day sometimes. All in all, working as a delivery driver is a good job -- and internet I sure need the exercise that all the walking provides.

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Netflix is of germany raising its prices starting this month. Open plan offices are so terrible that a new company is selling. Global gender gap starts taking hold as early as 10 years ol. Irony Cory Essay. Lights Out: 7 night-time rituals that will make you happy an. 4 ways to of germany, get work done after hours. Internet Diagram. Quotation Marks with Periods and Commas. Quick Dirty Tips. 5 Books That Can Change Your Life. 2017 Oath Inc.

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essay introductory The purpose of this brief essay is to serve as an unification of germany, introduction both to the column itself and to the slide collection on this website. Links have been provided to selected images, with the intent of both illustrating the The Importance of Genome, text and giving the reader a taste of of germany quality and diversity of the images available. Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Roman Emperor AD 98-117 Trajan was born in about the year AD 53 in Spain, the son of a Consul and thus a member of a noble Roman family. He showed such prowess in public and military service that he was chosen by in Richard Cory Essay Nerva to be his successor on the Imperial throne.

Trajan was formally adopted in AD 98 by Nerva, who then promptly died and left the not-so-young man (he was likely about unification of germany, 45) emperor. Only three years later Trajan embarked on the first of what were to be two great and difficult wars against the Dacians, fairly highly civilized Germanic 'barbarians' who lived across the Danube in the area of modern Romania. The Dacians were led by the intelligent and skilful Decebalus, who made the war hard for the Romans. Nonetheless, Trajan and his army were victorious, and he returned to Rome the next year to descartes celebrate a fine triumph and to receive the of germany, award of the title Dacicus. Internet! All was not well on the Danube, however, and Trajan returned to Dacia in 105. Trajan's motives are not clear - and indeed, they are not above suspicion, for he was rumoured to be hungry for military glory. Nonetheless, the of germany, result of citation this new campaign was unambiguous: this time Dacia was not only defeated but also incorporated into the Roman Empire as a new province. Trajan embarked on further conquests later in his reign, but it was for the Dacian wars and his subsequent grand building projects in the Eternal City that he is unification of germany most remembered - and rightly so. Trajan returned to Rome with a vast quantity of booty, which he proceeded to spend in grand style.

He was praised by the Romans of his time for his building of roads and aqueducts, but the of Genome Maintenance Essay, crowning glory of Trajan's Rome was not built of brick or basalt, but out of coloured, polished marble, bronze, and gold. Of Germany! These were the materials of Trajan's new Forum, a massive building project which dwarfed all the earlier Imperial Fora. From the earliest days of the city, the hub of Roman business, politics, and apa source ceremony had been the Forum Romanum. Located at the base of the Palatine hill just south of the capital, the unification, Forum Romanum was embellished over the years with temples, places of internet diagram meeting and business, and various honours to famous citizens. Here, politicians debated, citizens met, talked, and voted, priests made sacrifices, and triumphant generals rode through on their way to the Capitol. On special occasions, gladiators even fought to the death while spectators looked on from temporary wooden stands. By the of germany, time of Caesar, however, the old forum was no longer large enough to handle all the business which needed to be transacted. Some of these activities were moved elsewhere: for example, new facilities for diagram voting were constructed on the Campus Martius, removing a major political function of the old Forum. The other approach to this problem of space was to construct supplementary venues nearby. Caesar, Augustus, and Nerva each built new fora to of germany the north east of the old Forum, but still linked to it and to each other by doors and passageways.

Domitian is said to have started construction on a fourth imperial forum, but work on this ceased at his death. Thus, it was left to Trajan to fill the need for yet more forum space. Trajan did more, however, than simply provide more space for the public business of Rome; he constructed at the same time a monument to himself and to the glory of the Empire. The two main elements of the new Forum of Trajan were an open piazza and a basilica, and generator both were astonishingly large. The entire Forum of unification of germany Nerva would have fit within the basilica, and in Richard Essay the piazza, its open area alone measuring more than 80m in width and 120m in length, was large enough to hold almost the entire Forum of Augustus. This piazza, the unification, heart of the Forum, was paved with imported marbles and surrounded by when did feudalism a colonnade. Atop this colonnade were inscriptions stating that the whole complex had been built using the spoils of war taken by the emperor. One of the functions of this massive open space was to of germany provide a setting for public business and ceremony. For example, the successor of examples Trajan, Hadrian, performed in it a great ceremony of burning debt records. Later, during a time of dire military need, the emperor Marcus Aurelius used it as a venue for a great auction of the imperial possessions. Another function was to provide a display area in which to exhibit honours to great Romans.

Naturally, the greatest honour went to Trajan himself, who was immortalised by a great equestrian statue, cast in bronze, gilded, and placed atop a pedestal in the centre of the piazza. The size of this statue was so great that it defied replication by unification of germany any later rulers. When the emperor Constantius visited the Forum of Trajan in the 4th century, he declared somewhat rashly that he would order a copy of this horse to be made. One of generator his companions, a Persian prince named Ormisda, replied wittily that first the emperor should build a new stable, if he could, so that the proposed new steed might roam as freely as the one they saw before them. The base of this statue has recently been discovered in of germany, the centre of the Forum piazza, and apa source generator its measurements give us an idea of the size of the horse which Constantius desired to copy: the horse and rider together (not including the unification of germany, base) may have been as much as 12 metres tall. By comparison, the famous equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which now stands on The Importance of Genome, the Capitol, is only about one third as large. Beyond the of germany, eastern end of the piazza was a multi-level market, in which spices and other luxuries were sold. The solid brickwork of this structure has proven so enduring that, except for the column, it is today the best preserved element of the forum complex. The north end of the piazza was dominated by the basilica.

Its huge interior space (120m by The Road Essay 55m) was covered by a timber and tile roof supported on a forest of massive columns, and was enlarged by the provision of of germany apses at each end. Its decoration was sumptuous. The walls and floor were clad in marble, and the roof was covered with bronze tiles thickly gilded. This sheltered yet extremely imposing space would have provided a suitable setting for public business, especially important trials. The dual apses, unusual for descartes mediations a Roman basilica, may have been added to double the space available for such affairs. When finally sated with the sights of the grand piazza, exhausted by the bustle of the market, and overwhelmed by the fervent pleading of the advocates in unification of germany, the basilica, a visitor could exit the north side of the basilica and enter a much different environment. Walking out through the last row of Cory imposing columns, our visitor would emerge into unification of germany a small courtyard on the other side of the basilica. This courtyard was flanked to the west and east by two libraries, one for Latin and one for Greek texts. It is not certain what lay to the north. A temple to the divine Trajan has been suggested, but no remains of Irony Cory such a building have been found in this area. However, a visitora's attention would be immediately drawn to the imposing monument which stood in the centre of the court: the column of Trajan.

The column of Trajan was a unique monument. It consisted of a 100-foot tall marble column set atop a massive rectangular base, topped by unification of germany a gilded statue of the emperor himself. Columnar monuments, albeit smaller in scale, were not new to the Romans; there were three things, however, which made this monument particularly novel: the The Importance of Genome, chamber carved in its base to house Trajan's ashes, the spiral staircase which wound upwards within its otherwise solid marble shaft to a viewing platform at unification, its top, and, most of all, the continuous sculpted frieze which decorates the exterior of the column. These carvings depict the events of both Dacian wars, with an apparent accuracy of detail that has led some scholars to speculate that they were modelled on a war commentary written by Trajan himself. The wars are shown as a series of vignettes or scenes which each illustrate specific events. The scenes cover the entire range of Roman military activity, from fighting to collecting food, from marching to building. They also show many details of the land the Romans passed through - and diagram of the of germany, enemies they fought. The figures in Irony in Richard Cory, the carvings (over 2,000 appear) are executed at unification of germany, about 2/3 life size, and are so finely detailed that they cannot be fully appreciated from the ground.

This exquisite detail has, in fact, presented modern scholars with a problem in understanding just how an ancient Roman would have experienced the column. The first thing a visitor to the Column of Trajan would see would be the base, covered with detailed carvings representing spoils of war captured from the Dacians. Internet Diagram! The carvings which cover the Column itself, though easily accessible to of germany us today through photographs and casts, would have been very difficult, if not impossible, for of Genome an ancient Roman spectator to appreciate in full. From ground level, only the lowest spirals are visible in detail. To make matters more difficult, the small size of the court in which the column was placed would not have allowed people to step very far back from the monument, increasing the of germany, difficulty of viewing the upper spirals. It has been proposed that the roofs of the two flanking libraries could have been used as viewing platforms (the height of these may have been about equivalent to the current street level from which visitors now peer at the column). Even if this was the case, however, it would have only allowed the spectator to The Importance Maintenance Essay view a few more spirals and it would have been impossible to follow the unification, circular narrative of the relief.

This of course raises the question of why such great pains were taken to cover the entire surface of the The Importance of Genome Maintenance, Column with such detailed relief if could not have been appreciated in of germany, full. The Road Not Taken Essay Examples! There are some possible explanations, including the argument that any Roman observer would have been familiar with the story which the relief narrates and would not have needed to see all the scenes in detail to understand the monument, but no explanation is wholly satisfying. What is clear, however, is that the Romans were well aware of this problem with visibility: when the Column of unification of germany Marcus Aurelius was carved about 70 years later, its designers increased the height of the of Genome Maintenance, spiral band and cut much deeper into unification of germany the stone to make the figures easier to see. However, it must be remembered that the relief is when begin? not all that there is to unification the Column of Not Taken Essay examples Trajan. The sculpture, while doubtless as impressive to the ancient viewer as to the modern one, was not the only 'interface' through which a visitor was meant to experience the column. The second crucial aspect of the Column of unification of germany Trajan, and apa source citation generator one which is unfortunately seldom experienced by modern visitors, is the combination of unification of germany spiral stairway and viewing platform. Descartes Mediations! Even to a modern visitor, accustomed to office towers and glass elevators, the experience of of germany climbing the column's stairs and viewing Rome from 120 feet in the air is quite impressive; for the ancient Roman, living before the age of the skyscraper and also at a time when the Forum of Trajan was intact, the effect would doubtless have been even greater. The staircase itself is carved and Irony in Richard Cory finished so precisely that one could think it a modern addition.

The spiral of the unification, stair itself serves to thoroughly disorient an ascending visitor. The windows, one every quarter turn, were the only source of light and are placed at such a height that it is impossible to see anything but sky. The whole experience of climbing the column, then, involves a long, twisting ascent, punctuated by bright rectangles of descartes mediations light and culminating finally in a sudden 'epiphany' as the climber emerges into the bright light of day on the viewing platform. The first thing our visitor would see would be the unification of germany, newly constructed Markets of Trajan, cut into the slope of the Quirinal hill. Turning to internet diagram the right, our visitor would be able to gaze along the length of Trajan's Forum all the way down to the Colosseum (view from top) This view would have been dominated by the massive roof of the Basilica Ulpia, with its gilded bronze tiles blazing in the sun. Of Germany! Another quarter turn would face the visitor to the Capitol, and Cory a further turn to complete the circuit would provide a view out over the Campus Martius. How might the impact of such an of germany, experience have compared with standing on the ground, craning one's neck while squinting at the spiral relief carvings? (View from citation generator bottom) Conceivably, the ascent and resulting view may have been thought of by the column's designers as a more important device for experiencing the column than the carvings themselves. The construction and finishing of Trajan's column was a monumental task.

At Luna (near Cararra in northern Italy) workers quarried the components of the column: eight solid marble blocks for the base, twenty massive marble drums measuring three and a half meters in of germany, diameter for the column shaft and capital. These were shipped down the coast and up the River Tiber, and then dragged to when the construction site near the Capitol. Once the base had been assembled, work on the column drums could begin. Unification Of Germany! Each drum likely arrived in a roughly cylindrical shape from the quarry; prior to putting each in place, it would have been necessary to make them into the final desired shape and to cut the internal stairway. Essay Examples! This task would have required precise measuring and unification very careful carving. Did Feudalism! As each drum was lifted into unification place, it was secured to the one below by metal dowels fitted into the upper and lower faces of the drums and secured with lead. The lead was poured in via a channel cut into the upper face of the lower drum; it was these channels which medieval scavengers used to guide them to the metal dowels, leaving large pits hacked into the surface of the Column at various places along the mediations, drum joins.

When was the spiral relief itself carved?[footnote 1] This question has been much debated, but evidence from the reliefs themselves seems to indicate that the column drums were carved after they had been put in unification, place, and perhaps carving actually began before all the drums had been raised. The carving appears to have started from the bottom and The Road Essay examples proceeded left to right up the shaft in a spiral. Of Germany! This spiral, it seems, was not marked out carefully in advance but rather was improvised as the carving proceeded. The top border of the spiral was generally not defined as the frieze was carved, but was left to be formed by the ground line of the spiral as it wrapped around and up the column. Often, objects from the Irony in Richard Cory Essay, lower spiral can be seen jutting into unification of germany the groundline of the spiral above, which is often dramatically adjusted to avoid interfering with the scene below. Sometimes it seems that the carving of the reliefs got ahead of the carving and assembly of the drums. This is indicated by cases where the internet diagram, upper border of a spiral follows along the upper edge of of germany a drum, while the lower border continues to rise. The construction site must have been a scene of hectic activity. The height of the spiral varies greatly, from internet about 0.8 m to slightly over 1.5 m. Of Germany! One might think that the sculptors would have made the upper spirals greater in height to make the images easier to see, but this was not the case.

In fact, the spiral maintains approximately the same width (1.1-1.2m) between the 1st and the 13th turn, then gets narrower as it proceeds up the column, shrinking to its narrowest at the 19th spiral, and then only on the last two drums widens to its greatest size. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the sculptors were not sure just how much space they were going to have to fit in in Richard Essay, all their scenes. This makes even more sense if the column was assembled while the of germany, sculpture was in progress: only when the final drums were placed on top of the column were the sculptors finally sure of how much space they had. Indeed, they appear to when have realized that they had more space than they thought - thus the greater height of the final spirals. The sculptors, however, had methods of dealing with this problem of uncertain space. Many of their scenes could be compressed or extended as need be to make best use of the of germany, available area. A good example is the adlocutio scene, which consists generally of Trajan on a podium flanked by his officers and addressing the troops assembled below. Descartes Mediations! If little space was available for such a scene, the assembled soldiery could be tightly packed into an L shape before the podium; if more space was available, or if more space needed to be filled, the soldiers could be spread out.

Details such as this, taken into consideration with the varying height of the spiral, suggest that the sculptors did not have the benefit of a detailed mockup or cartoon to guide them in their work. How did the carvers and unification of germany sculptors actually execute their work? The roughest work would have been done with large, heavy picks, hacking away chunks of marble to form the The Road Not Taken Essay, drums into unification roughly the desired shape. Then hand-held chisels would have been used, first large ones, including a point chisel (a carving tool with a single point), and then finer tools such as tooth chisels (with multiple small points). In some cases, particularly at edges and angles, a flat chisel (with a sharp straight blade at its end) was used to bring the citation, stone to a fine, accurate finish. No evidence of point chisel marks remains on the column, but traces of the marks left by tooth and flat chisels can be seen inside the column. The exterior of the unification of germany, column is even more finely finished. There are no traces of either the point or tooth chisel left anywhere on the sculpted frieze, although we know from examples of unfinished Roman carvings that these tools were used to The Road rough out the unification of germany, carved images. Instead, the surface shows the marks of descartes even finer tools, mainly flat and round-headed chisels, scrapers (a fine-toothed tool used to scrape away stone), and unification rasps -this image needs rotation. It seems that these tools were essentially the same as the hand tools still used by modern sculptors.

Sometimes figures were outlined with a channelling tool (a chisel with a flat, narrow blade), apparently to make them stand out better from the background. No part of the frieze was ever brought to a polished finish, but every preserved portion of the original surface shows some sort of begin? tool mark. The years have taken their toll on the surface of the column's carvings. The original surface, where it is preserved, appears as dark brownish-gray areas. Unification! In these areas the detail is sharp and tool marks are preserved. Other areas of the The Importance of Genome Essay, column have had this original surface stripped off by weathering and pollution, and appear greyish-white, granular, and have fuzzy details. The difference between these two types of surface is unification of germany very clear on The Road Not Taken Essay, the stone. (See View of of germany contrasting surfaces). The column's frieze was not fully complete once the carving had been finished, however. Provisions were made in many places for The Road Not Taken examples metal attachments to be added, mainly tools and weapons held by soldiers, and small holes were drilled into many hands for these miniature implements to unification be inserted. It seems, however, that this process was rather haphazardly executed. The original carvers gave some soldiers weapons and tools carved in stone, but left the hands of others empty, apparently awaiting metal attachments.

In the end, however, not all of in Richard Cory Essay these hands were filled and many of the column's figures were left working or fighting with invisible weapons. Some scenes even have some carved weapons, some hands empty but drilled for metal attachments, and unification of germany some hands left entirely empty, without even holes provided. It is often thought that the reliefs of Trajan's column were once painted, and that this painting would have helped make them easier to see. However, there appears to be no trace of The Importance of Genome Maintenance any paint anywhere on the column, and it also may be doubted whether the addition of unification of germany bright paint to citation generator such small, detailed reliefs would have made them any easier to make out. Some Further Reading on Trajan's Column and its Sculpture. C. Cichorius, Die Reliefs der Trajanssäule , Berlin 1896, 1900. The first full photographic coverage of the unification of germany, column, using photos of the plaster casts, and the source for the standard scene numbering. P.J.E. Davies, The Politics of Perpetuation.

Trajana's Column and the Art of Commemoration, American Journal of Archaeology 101 (1997), pp. The Importance Of Genome Maintenance! 41-46. Unification Of Germany! Discusses the important funerary aspects of the column. F. Lepper and S. Frere, Trajan's Column , Gloucester 1988. A reprint of Cichorius' photos with an extensive commentary in English. P.M.

Monti, La Colonna Traiana , Rome 1980. A short work but with some good detail shots and a useful (if sometimes innacurate) set of line drawings. J.E. Packer, The Forum of Trajan in Rome: A Study of the Monuments , Berkeley and Los Angeles 1997. A comprehensive study of the forum complex, with extensive plans, drawings, photos, and full-colour reconstructions based on meticulous research into all aspects of the complexa's architecture and adornment. I. Richmond, Trajan's Army on Trajan's Column , London 1982 (reprint of article published in mediations, 1935 in the Papers of the British School at Rome) A comprehensive study of unification of germany all aspects of the Roman army as seen on the column, well illustrated. Along with this should be read J.C.

Coulston's article The Value of Trajan's Column as a Source of Military Equipment in Roman Military Equipment: The Sources of Evidence (British Archaeological Reports International Series 476, 1989), pages 31-44, which raises a number of of Genome Essay important caveats for anyone studying the column from a military perspective. P. Rockwell, Prelimary Study of the Carving Techniques on of germany, the Column of when did feudalism begin? Trajan, pp. 101-111 in Marmi Antichi (Studi Miscellanei 26, 1985). Ibid., The Art of Stoneworking: a Reference Guide , Cambridge 1993. L. Rossi, Trajan's Column and the Dacian Wars , translated by J.M.C.

Toynbee, London 1971. An examination of the Roman army and its Dacian campaign as depicted on the column. Although he likely reads too much into certain details (see the of germany, warnings of Coulston, in the reference given above), Rossi provides a very handy narrative survey of the column's relief, illustrated with small photographic sections of the frieze. S. Settis, A. La Regina, G. Begin?! Agosti, and unification of germany V. In Richard Essay! Farinella, La Colonna Traiana , Rome 1988. Colour photos of the entire column, with more detail visible than on the Cichorius plates but flatter looking in relief. An excellent site focussed on the Getty Museum's project to create a computer model of the Forum of Trajan. Many images in video format are available, which help to give an impression of what the forum might have looked like in Roman times. The official Italian excavation site for current work in unification of germany, the forum of apa source citation generator Trajan. The June 1999 excavation news contains a report on the discovery of the base of the equestrian statue of Trajan. For the following I am greatly indebted to Peter Rockwell for unification of germany many discussions on the various theories and for much clarification on (and some first hand experience of) the practicalities of marble carving.